Utility of the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) to predict adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication regimens among HIV-positive men and women.J Pers Assess. 2007 Dec; 89(3):277-90.JP
Psychosocial and behavioral factors may be strong predictors of adherence to medications in a wide variety of diseases. Newly emerging antiretroviral medications for HIV have been shown to be effective but require near perfect adherence to offer clinically significant benefits. There is currently great interest in deriving patient factors that may predict optimal medication adherence in HIV-positive persons. In this study, we examined the association of psychosocial and behavioral characteristics using the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD; Millon, Antoni, Millon, Meagher, & Grossman, 2001) and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among 117 HIV-positive individuals on HAART regimens. Specific indexes of the MBMD were associated with HAART adherence as assessed through patient interview, at baseline assessment, and at 3-month follow-up at a point after which participants had received medication adherence training. As hypothesized, the Medication Abuse scale of the MBMD was uniquely associated with overall adherence at baseline assessment and also predictive of adherence at 3-month follow-up. Additional MBMD scales were also related to overall adherence as well as specific adherence behaviors such as missed doses, following specific instructions, and overmedicating, although the Medication Abuse scale emerged as the most consistent predictor of adherence in the study. These results suggest that the MBMD can be used to predict adherence to HAART medication in a sample of HIV-positive men and women and may subsequently be used to identify those in need of adherence counseling at the point when medications are initiated.