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Effort-reward imbalance, heart rate, and heart rate variability: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
Int J Behav Med. 2007; 14(4):202-12.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Work stress indicated by effort-reward imbalance is hypothesized to cause autonomic arousal, which, if prolonged or frequent, could contribute to cardiovascular pathology. However, only limited empirical evidence on this mechanism is available.

PURPOSE

This study examined associations between effort-reward imbalance, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV).

METHOD

The participants were 457 women and 406 men (mean age 32.3 years) derived from the population-based Young Finns Study. Effort-reward imbalance was defined as the ratio between effort and reward, higher efforts compared to rewards indicating greater imbalance.

RESULTS

In age-adjusted regression models, higher effort-reward imbalance was associated with lower HRV, and lower reward was associated with higher HR among women. These associations were not attenuated after additional adjustments for demographic characteristics and coronary risk factors. No significant associations of effort-reward imbalance or its components with HR and HRV were found in men.

CONCLUSION

Our finding of lower HRV and higher HR in young healthy women with high effort-reward imbalance and low rewards provides evidence of a potential mechanism that may link effort-reward imbalance to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18001235

Citation

Hintsanen, Mirka, et al. "Effort-reward Imbalance, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study." International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 14, no. 4, 2007, pp. 202-12.
Hintsanen M, Elovainio M, Puttonen S, et al. Effort-reward imbalance, heart rate, and heart rate variability: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Int J Behav Med. 2007;14(4):202-12.
Hintsanen, M., Elovainio, M., Puttonen, S., Kivimaki, M., Koskinen, T., Raitakari, O. T., & Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. (2007). Effort-reward imbalance, heart rate, and heart rate variability: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14(4), 202-12.
Hintsanen M, et al. Effort-reward Imbalance, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Int J Behav Med. 2007;14(4):202-12. PubMed PMID: 18001235.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effort-reward imbalance, heart rate, and heart rate variability: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. AU - Hintsanen,Mirka, AU - Elovainio,Marko, AU - Puttonen,Sampsa, AU - Kivimaki,Mika, AU - Koskinen,Tuomas, AU - Raitakari,Olli T, AU - Keltikangas-Jarvinen,Liisa, PY - 2007/11/16/pubmed PY - 2008/2/8/medline PY - 2007/11/16/entrez SP - 202 EP - 12 JF - International journal of behavioral medicine JO - Int J Behav Med VL - 14 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Work stress indicated by effort-reward imbalance is hypothesized to cause autonomic arousal, which, if prolonged or frequent, could contribute to cardiovascular pathology. However, only limited empirical evidence on this mechanism is available. PURPOSE: This study examined associations between effort-reward imbalance, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). METHOD: The participants were 457 women and 406 men (mean age 32.3 years) derived from the population-based Young Finns Study. Effort-reward imbalance was defined as the ratio between effort and reward, higher efforts compared to rewards indicating greater imbalance. RESULTS: In age-adjusted regression models, higher effort-reward imbalance was associated with lower HRV, and lower reward was associated with higher HR among women. These associations were not attenuated after additional adjustments for demographic characteristics and coronary risk factors. No significant associations of effort-reward imbalance or its components with HR and HRV were found in men. CONCLUSION: Our finding of lower HRV and higher HR in young healthy women with high effort-reward imbalance and low rewards provides evidence of a potential mechanism that may link effort-reward imbalance to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. SN - 1070-5503 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18001235/Effort_reward_imbalance_heart_rate_and_heart_rate_variability:_the_Cardiovascular_Risk_in_Young_Finns_Study_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=18001235.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -