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Relative abuse liability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in club drug users.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Dec; 27(6):625-38.JC

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) toxicity, there are few studies examining the clinical pharmacology of GHB and its abuse potential. To evaluate GHB-induced subjective and physiological effects, its relative abuse liability and its impact on psychomotor performance in club drug users.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Twelve healthy male recreational users of GHB participated in 5 experimental sessions in the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, and crossover. Drug conditions were a single oral dose of GHB (40 or 60 mg/kg), ethanol (0.7 g/kg), flunitrazepam (1.25 mg), and placebo. Study variables included vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, oral temperature, pupil diameter), psychomotor performance (digit symbol substitution test, balance, Maddox-Wing), subjective effects (a set of 13 visual analogue scales, Addiction Research Center Inventory-49 items, and Evaluation of the Subjective Effects of Substances with Potential of Abuse questionnaires), and pharmacokinetics.

RESULTS

All active conditions induced positive effects related to their abuse potential. The administration of GHB produced euphoria and pleasurable effects with slightly higher ratings than those observed for flunitrazepam and ethanol. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid induced a biphasic time profile with an initial stimulant-like effect related to the simultaneous rise of plasma concentrations and a latter sedative effect not related to GHB kinetics. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid increased blood pressure and pupil diameter. Ethanol induced its prototypical effects, and flunitrazepam produced marked sedation. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and flunitrazepam impaired psychomotor performance, digit symbol substitution test, and balance task, whereas ethanol, at the dose tested, induced only mild effects exclusively affecting the balance task.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results suggest a high abuse liability of GHB and flunitrazepam in club drug users.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pharmacology Research Unit, Human Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences Research Group, Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica, c/Doctor Aiguader 80, Barcelona, Spain. sabanades@imim.esNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18004131

Citation

Abanades, Sergio, et al. "Relative Abuse Liability of Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid, Flunitrazepam, and Ethanol in Club Drug Users." Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 6, 2007, pp. 625-38.
Abanades S, Farré M, Barral D, et al. Relative abuse liability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in club drug users. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(6):625-38.
Abanades, S., Farré, M., Barral, D., Torrens, M., Closas, N., Langohr, K., Pastor, A., & de la Torre, R. (2007). Relative abuse liability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in club drug users. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(6), 625-38.
Abanades S, et al. Relative Abuse Liability of Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid, Flunitrazepam, and Ethanol in Club Drug Users. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(6):625-38. PubMed PMID: 18004131.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relative abuse liability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in club drug users. AU - Abanades,Sergio, AU - Farré,Magi, AU - Barral,Diego, AU - Torrens,Marta, AU - Closas,Neus, AU - Langohr,Klaus, AU - Pastor,Antoni, AU - de la Torre,Rafael, PY - 2007/11/16/pubmed PY - 2008/2/27/medline PY - 2007/11/16/entrez SP - 625 EP - 38 JF - Journal of clinical psychopharmacology JO - J Clin Psychopharmacol VL - 27 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) toxicity, there are few studies examining the clinical pharmacology of GHB and its abuse potential. To evaluate GHB-induced subjective and physiological effects, its relative abuse liability and its impact on psychomotor performance in club drug users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy male recreational users of GHB participated in 5 experimental sessions in the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, and crossover. Drug conditions were a single oral dose of GHB (40 or 60 mg/kg), ethanol (0.7 g/kg), flunitrazepam (1.25 mg), and placebo. Study variables included vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, oral temperature, pupil diameter), psychomotor performance (digit symbol substitution test, balance, Maddox-Wing), subjective effects (a set of 13 visual analogue scales, Addiction Research Center Inventory-49 items, and Evaluation of the Subjective Effects of Substances with Potential of Abuse questionnaires), and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: All active conditions induced positive effects related to their abuse potential. The administration of GHB produced euphoria and pleasurable effects with slightly higher ratings than those observed for flunitrazepam and ethanol. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid induced a biphasic time profile with an initial stimulant-like effect related to the simultaneous rise of plasma concentrations and a latter sedative effect not related to GHB kinetics. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid increased blood pressure and pupil diameter. Ethanol induced its prototypical effects, and flunitrazepam produced marked sedation. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and flunitrazepam impaired psychomotor performance, digit symbol substitution test, and balance task, whereas ethanol, at the dose tested, induced only mild effects exclusively affecting the balance task. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a high abuse liability of GHB and flunitrazepam in club drug users. SN - 0271-0749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18004131/Relative_abuse_liability_of_gamma_hydroxybutyric_acid_flunitrazepam_and_ethanol_in_club_drug_users_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/jcp.0b013e31815a2542 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -