Inhibitory effect of fruit extracts on the formation of heterocyclic amines.J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12; 55(25):10359-65.JA
Natural extracts have attracted considerable attention for development into effective inhibitors against the formation of genotoxic heterocyclic amines (HAs) in processed foods. In this study, four fruit extracts (apple, elderberry, grape seed, and pineapple) were evaluated for their effects on HA formation in fried beef patties. Apple and grape seed extracts were found to be the most effective in both the degree of inhibition in the formation of individual HAs (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-henylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) and in the reduction of total HA content (approximately 70% relative to the control). Activity-guided analysis of apple extract using model systems (PhIP- and MeIQx-producing models) showed that the proanthocyanidins, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid were responsible for reducing the amount of HAs formed. Proanthocyanidins were identified as the dominant inhibitors because they were strongly active against HA formation in both the PhIP and MeIQx model systems. For phloridzin, the inhibitory effect was observed only on the formation of PhIP. In contrast, chlorogenic acid, although effective against the formation of MeIQx, significantly enhanced the formation of PhIP. This is the first report showing the inhibitory activities of apple phenolics on the formation of heterocyclic amines. The findings provide valuable information for the development of effective strategies to minimize HA content of cooked meats and to identify several new natural products that may have new applications in the food industry.