Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: almond hulls and grape pomace.J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12; 55(25):10101-9.JA
Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic/water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG), whereas the FOW fraction offered the additional presence of epicatechin (EC) and glycosylated flavonols. In the composition for extracts of white and red grape pomace several of these compounds were also detected but basically consisted of glycosylated flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol). As a difference between both grape pomaces, myricetin glycosyde was found in that from the red variety, whereas flavan-3-ols (EC, afzelechin) were only identified in white pomace. When their FOW fractions were analyzed, gallic acid and some hydroxybenzoic acids were additionally detected. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH. Even appearing as two quite different vegetal matrixes, the composition of phenolics in grape pomace and almond hulls is quite similar, the main difference being the major occurrence of flavonols in grape pomace. This fact could presumably explain the lower antiradical activity of hull extracts.