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Ultrasonographic appearance of the lower urinary tract in fifteen normal horses.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007 Nov-Dec; 48(6):560-4.VR

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the caudal portion of the equine ureters, pelvic urethra, and urinary bladder and to assess ureteral contractility. Fifteen horses with no evidence of urinary tract disease (five females, five intact males and five geldings) were studied. The lower urinary tract was evaluated ultrasonographically using a transrectal approach. The normal ultrasonographic appearance and anatomic location of structures of the lower urinary tract were evaluated and anatomic relationships described. Both ureters were identified dorsal to the bladder and at their openings into the bladder. Their relationship and different appearance from the male deferent ducts/ampullae and vesicular glands was noted. Ultrasonographic measurements of the diameter of the ureters and urethra were obtained and the ureteral, urethral, and urinary bladder wall thickness recorded. The normal parameters established in this study will be useful during sonographic examination of horses with suspected urinary tract disease. Transrectal ultrasonographic examination is valuable in assessing the presence and frequency of ureteral contractions as well as in detecting structural abnormalities of the lower urinary tract. The use of high-frequency transrectal ultrasound transducers allows for excellent visualization of the structures of the equine lower urinary tract.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Studies, Section of Sports Medicine and Imaging, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA. olgasseco@vet.upenn.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18018730

Citation

Diaz, Olga Seco, et al. "Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Lower Urinary Tract in Fifteen Normal Horses." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound : the Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association, vol. 48, no. 6, 2007, pp. 560-4.
Diaz OS, Smith G, Reef VB. Ultrasonographic appearance of the lower urinary tract in fifteen normal horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007;48(6):560-4.
Diaz, O. S., Smith, G., & Reef, V. B. (2007). Ultrasonographic appearance of the lower urinary tract in fifteen normal horses. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound : the Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association, 48(6), 560-4.
Diaz OS, Smith G, Reef VB. Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Lower Urinary Tract in Fifteen Normal Horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007 Nov-Dec;48(6):560-4. PubMed PMID: 18018730.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ultrasonographic appearance of the lower urinary tract in fifteen normal horses. AU - Diaz,Olga Seco, AU - Smith,Gary, AU - Reef,Virginia B, PY - 2007/11/21/pubmed PY - 2007/12/7/medline PY - 2007/11/21/entrez SP - 560 EP - 4 JF - Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association JO - Vet Radiol Ultrasound VL - 48 IS - 6 N2 - The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the caudal portion of the equine ureters, pelvic urethra, and urinary bladder and to assess ureteral contractility. Fifteen horses with no evidence of urinary tract disease (five females, five intact males and five geldings) were studied. The lower urinary tract was evaluated ultrasonographically using a transrectal approach. The normal ultrasonographic appearance and anatomic location of structures of the lower urinary tract were evaluated and anatomic relationships described. Both ureters were identified dorsal to the bladder and at their openings into the bladder. Their relationship and different appearance from the male deferent ducts/ampullae and vesicular glands was noted. Ultrasonographic measurements of the diameter of the ureters and urethra were obtained and the ureteral, urethral, and urinary bladder wall thickness recorded. The normal parameters established in this study will be useful during sonographic examination of horses with suspected urinary tract disease. Transrectal ultrasonographic examination is valuable in assessing the presence and frequency of ureteral contractions as well as in detecting structural abnormalities of the lower urinary tract. The use of high-frequency transrectal ultrasound transducers allows for excellent visualization of the structures of the equine lower urinary tract. SN - 1058-8183 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18018730/Ultrasonographic_appearance_of_the_lower_urinary_tract_in_fifteen_normal_horses_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1058-8183&date=2007&volume=48&issue=6&spage=560 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -