Isocaloric modification of dietary lipids influences intestinal brush border membrane composition in diabetic rats.Diabetes Res. 1991 Mar; 16(3):127-38.DR
Variations in the dietary fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are associated with alterations in the intestinal uptake of hexoses and lipids in control and diabetic rats. Changes in the composition of the brush membrane (BBM) lipids may provide a possible mechanism for the observed alterations in transport properties. Accordingly, control and streptozotocin diabetic animals were fed one of four isocaloric semisynthetic diets for two weeks: beef tallow with low cholesterol, beef tallow with high cholesterol, fish oil with low cholesterol or fish oil with high cholesterol. BBM were prepared and assessed for marker enzyme activity and lipid composition. Fish oil feeding was associated with a reduction in total phospholipid content in control and diabetic jejunal and ileal BBM; this fall in total phospholipids was due to a reduction in BBM sphingomyelin. Cholesterol supplementation increased control jejunal BBM sucrase activity in animals fed beef tallow but reduced sucrase activity in animals fed fish oil. In fish oil fed diabetic animals, jejunal and ileal BBM alkaline phosphatase activity was increased with cholesterol supplementation. The elevation in BBM total phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine) associated with diabetes in beef tallow fed animals was not observed in the jejunal BBM of animals fed fish oil or in the ileal BBM of animals fed fish oil with high cholesterol. Thus, (a) feeding an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet (fish oil) reduced total phospholipid content in BBM of control and diabetic animals, primarily due to a reduction in sphingomyelin; and (b) feeding an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet or dietary cholesterol supplementation alter the activity of BBM enzymes. These results suggest that variations in dietary fat composition and the associated changes in BBM composition and enzyme activity contribute to altered intestinal function in diabetes.