Treatment of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction.Compr Ther 2007; 33(4):223-30CT
Underlying causes and precipitating causes of heart failure (HF) should be treated when possible. Persons with HF and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) should have maintenance of sinus rhythm, treatment of hypertension, myocardial ischemia, dyslipidemia, and anemia, slowing of the ventricular rate below 90 bpm, and reduction of salt overload. First-line drug treatment in the management of these persons is the use of loop diuretics combined with beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. If persons are unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors because of cough, angioneurotic edema, rash, or altered taste sensation, angiotensin II type I receptor antagonists (ARBs) should be given. If HF persists despite diuretics, beta blockers, and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, isosorbide dinitrate plus hydralazine should be administered. Beta blockers, verapamil, diltiazem, and digoxin may be used to slow a rapid ventricular rate in persons with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Digoxin should not be used in persons with HF in sinus rhythm with normal LVEF. Exercise training should be encouraged in persons with mild to moderate HF to improve functional status and to decrease symptoms.