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Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women.
Arch Intern Med 2007; 167(21):2304-9AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Previous studies of carbohydrate quality and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. Because diet is in part culturally determined, a study of dietary factors in US black women is of interest.

METHODS

We used data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 59,000 US black women, to examine the association of glycemic load, glycemic index, and cereal fiber with risk of type 2 diabetes. Diet was assessed at baseline in 1995 with a modified version of the National Cancer Institute-Block food frequency questionnaire.

RESULTS

During 8 years of follow-up, there were 1,938 incident cases of diabetes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for quintiles of dietary factors, while controlling for lifestyle and dietary factors. Glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes: the IRR for the highest quintile relative to the lowest was 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.44). Cereal fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of diabetes, with an IRR of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.96) for the highest vs lowest quintiles of intake. Stronger associations were seen among women with a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) lower than 25: IRRs for the highest vs lowest quintile were 1.91 (95% CI, 1.16-3.16) for glycemic index (P value for interaction, .12) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.24-0.72) for cereal fiber intake (P value for interaction, .05).

CONCLUSION

Increasing cereal fiber in the diet may be an effective means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, a disease that has reached epidemic proportions in black women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. skrishnan@slone.bu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18039988

Citation

Krishnan, Supriya, et al. "Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Black Women." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 21, 2007, pp. 2304-9.
Krishnan S, Rosenberg L, Singer M, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(21):2304-9.
Krishnan, S., Rosenberg, L., Singer, M., Hu, F. B., Djoussé, L., Cupples, L. A., & Palmer, J. R. (2007). Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(21), pp. 2304-9.
Krishnan S, et al. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Black Women. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2304-9. PubMed PMID: 18039988.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. AU - Krishnan,Supriya, AU - Rosenberg,Lynn, AU - Singer,Martha, AU - Hu,Frank B, AU - Djoussé,Luc, AU - Cupples,L Adrienne, AU - Palmer,Julie R, PY - 2007/11/28/pubmed PY - 2008/1/25/medline PY - 2007/11/28/entrez SP - 2304 EP - 9 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 167 IS - 21 N2 - BACKGROUND: Previous studies of carbohydrate quality and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. Because diet is in part culturally determined, a study of dietary factors in US black women is of interest. METHODS: We used data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 59,000 US black women, to examine the association of glycemic load, glycemic index, and cereal fiber with risk of type 2 diabetes. Diet was assessed at baseline in 1995 with a modified version of the National Cancer Institute-Block food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During 8 years of follow-up, there were 1,938 incident cases of diabetes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for quintiles of dietary factors, while controlling for lifestyle and dietary factors. Glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes: the IRR for the highest quintile relative to the lowest was 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.44). Cereal fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of diabetes, with an IRR of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.96) for the highest vs lowest quintiles of intake. Stronger associations were seen among women with a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) lower than 25: IRRs for the highest vs lowest quintile were 1.91 (95% CI, 1.16-3.16) for glycemic index (P value for interaction, .12) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.24-0.72) for cereal fiber intake (P value for interaction, .05). CONCLUSION: Increasing cereal fiber in the diet may be an effective means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, a disease that has reached epidemic proportions in black women. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18039988/Glycemic_index_glycemic_load_and_cereal_fiber_intake_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_US_black_women_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinte.167.21.2304 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -