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Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) influences the mode of sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cell death in HaCaT cells.
Arch Toxicol. 2008 Jul; 82(7):461-70.AT

Abstract

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent. Its primary toxic consequence is severe skin damage with blisters, occurring after skin contact. These vesicant properties of SM have been linked to cell death of proliferating keratinocytes in the basal layer of the skin. Catalytic activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) has been demonstrated to be a major event in response to high levels of DNA damage, and PARP-1 activation may be part of apoptotic signaling. In other contexts, overstimulation of PARP-1 triggers necrotic cell death because of rapid consumption of its substrate, beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and the consequent depletion of ATP. These findings prompted us to evaluate whether SM induces apoptosis in keratinocytes like HaCaT cells and to determine whether blocking of PARP enzyme activity with 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) can influence the mode of cell death. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (10-1,000 microM; 30 min) and then cultivated in SM-free medium with or without 3AB for up to 48 h. This treatment resulted in a time and SM dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cell death characterized by PARP-1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation during the experimental period. After just 45 min of exposure to 1 mM SM, we observed a significant increase in PARP-1 activity in HaCaT cells. About 6 h after exposure, intracellular ATP levels were diminished by 22%, which seemed to be completely prevented by the addition of 3AB directly after exposure. However, 18 h later, this 3AB effect on the SM concentration-dependent loss of ATP was no longer detectable. Interestingly, the effect of SM on total cell viability was not changed by 3AB. However, the mode of cell death was influenced by 3AB exhibiting an increase of apoptotic cells and a concomitant decrease of necrotic HaCaT cells during the first 24 h after SM exposure. Our results indicate that SM concentrations of 1 mM or higher induce a prominent PARP activation leading to ATP depletion and necrosis. In contrast, lower concentrations of SM cause minor PARP activation and, especially, PARP-1 cleavage by caspase 3 without ATP depletion. Because ATP is required for apoptosis, we suggest that ATP acts as an early molecular switch from apoptotic to necrotic modes of SM-induced cell death, at least at high concentrations (> or =1 mM). Thus, the observed early proapoptotic effect of 3AB at lower SM concentrations may point to the influence of ATP-independent cell-death regulating mechanisms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstr. 11, 80937 Munich, Germany. kai.kehe@lrz.uni-muenchen.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18046540

Citation

Kehe, K, et al. "Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Influences the Mode of Sulfur Mustard (SM)-induced Cell Death in HaCaT Cells." Archives of Toxicology, vol. 82, no. 7, 2008, pp. 461-70.
Kehe K, Raithel K, Kreppel H, et al. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) influences the mode of sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82(7):461-70.
Kehe, K., Raithel, K., Kreppel, H., Jochum, M., Worek, F., & Thiermann, H. (2008). Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) influences the mode of sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. Archives of Toxicology, 82(7), 461-70.
Kehe K, et al. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Influences the Mode of Sulfur Mustard (SM)-induced Cell Death in HaCaT Cells. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82(7):461-70. PubMed PMID: 18046540.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) influences the mode of sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. AU - Kehe,K, AU - Raithel,K, AU - Kreppel,H, AU - Jochum,M, AU - Worek,F, AU - Thiermann,H, Y1 - 2007/11/29/ PY - 2007/08/31/received PY - 2007/11/13/accepted PY - 2007/11/30/pubmed PY - 2008/9/20/medline PY - 2007/11/30/entrez SP - 461 EP - 70 JF - Archives of toxicology JO - Arch Toxicol VL - 82 IS - 7 N2 - Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent. Its primary toxic consequence is severe skin damage with blisters, occurring after skin contact. These vesicant properties of SM have been linked to cell death of proliferating keratinocytes in the basal layer of the skin. Catalytic activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) has been demonstrated to be a major event in response to high levels of DNA damage, and PARP-1 activation may be part of apoptotic signaling. In other contexts, overstimulation of PARP-1 triggers necrotic cell death because of rapid consumption of its substrate, beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and the consequent depletion of ATP. These findings prompted us to evaluate whether SM induces apoptosis in keratinocytes like HaCaT cells and to determine whether blocking of PARP enzyme activity with 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) can influence the mode of cell death. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (10-1,000 microM; 30 min) and then cultivated in SM-free medium with or without 3AB for up to 48 h. This treatment resulted in a time and SM dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cell death characterized by PARP-1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation during the experimental period. After just 45 min of exposure to 1 mM SM, we observed a significant increase in PARP-1 activity in HaCaT cells. About 6 h after exposure, intracellular ATP levels were diminished by 22%, which seemed to be completely prevented by the addition of 3AB directly after exposure. However, 18 h later, this 3AB effect on the SM concentration-dependent loss of ATP was no longer detectable. Interestingly, the effect of SM on total cell viability was not changed by 3AB. However, the mode of cell death was influenced by 3AB exhibiting an increase of apoptotic cells and a concomitant decrease of necrotic HaCaT cells during the first 24 h after SM exposure. Our results indicate that SM concentrations of 1 mM or higher induce a prominent PARP activation leading to ATP depletion and necrosis. In contrast, lower concentrations of SM cause minor PARP activation and, especially, PARP-1 cleavage by caspase 3 without ATP depletion. Because ATP is required for apoptosis, we suggest that ATP acts as an early molecular switch from apoptotic to necrotic modes of SM-induced cell death, at least at high concentrations (> or =1 mM). Thus, the observed early proapoptotic effect of 3AB at lower SM concentrations may point to the influence of ATP-independent cell-death regulating mechanisms. SN - 0340-5761 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18046540/Inhibition_of_poly_ADP_ribose__polymerase__PARP__influences_the_mode_of_sulfur_mustard__SM__induced_cell_death_in_HaCaT_cells_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-007-0265-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -