Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration.
Br J Dermatol. 2008 Feb; 158(2):251-60.BJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dermatologists and cosmetic scientists are becoming increasingly interested in stratum corneum (SC) hydration because the SC plays an important role in keeping the skin surface soft and smooth. However, conventional in vivo noninvasive methods do not provide direct information about the depth profiles of water content or SC components that hold water.

OBJECTIVES

To study the depth profiles of water and SC components in vivo by Raman spectroscopy, and to analyse the changes due to age, anatomical location, season and water application.

METHODS

In vivo Raman spectra of the skin of the cheek and the volar forearm were obtained from 50 healthy Japanese volunteers of different ages (age range 22-76 years) with a confocal Raman spectrometer. The depth-dependent profiles of water and of SC water-binding components were calculated from the respective Raman spectra.

RESULTS

The depth profile of the SC water content was observed in a pattern ranging from around 30% (water/wet tissue) at the outermost layer of the SC to about 70% at the deeper living layer. Although the water content at a depth of 10-30 microm in the forearm skin tended to be lower in older subjects than in younger subjects, no such difference was found in the much thinner SC of the cheek. Moreover, there was no seasonal difference in depth profile of water content from the mid part of the SC to an 80-microm depth from the skin surface both in the cheek and in the forearm. The water content of all the evaluated SC components showed a gradual decrease from the surface to deeper portions. The mean amounts of lactate in the forearm skin and cholesterol in the cheek skin were significantly higher in younger subjects than in older subjects. In contrast, the levels of free amino acids and trans-urocanic acid were higher in the forearm skin of older subjects than in younger subjects. The relative amounts of urea and lactate were the highest in summer, when that of trans-urocanic acid was the lowest. Prolonged water application on the forearm skin even for 90 min resulted in a remarkable increase in water content throughout the SC, even reaching the granular layer, which was only gradually released from the upper part of the SC after discontinuation of the hydration procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

Our present findings suggest that changes in the concentration depth profiles of water, free amino acids and lipids in the skin depend on age, anatomical site and season. These findings indicate the important roles played by various water-holding substances in the SC in the regulation of SC water content.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Shiseido Life Science Research Center, 2-2-1 Hayabuchi, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama 224-8558, Japan. mariko.egawa@to.shiseido.co.jpNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18047517

Citation

Egawa, M, and H Tagami. "Comparison of the Depth Profiles of Water and Water-binding Substances in the Stratum Corneum Determined in Vivo By Raman Spectroscopy Between the Cheek and Volar Forearm Skin: Effects of Age, Seasonal Changes and Artificial Forced Hydration." The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 158, no. 2, 2008, pp. 251-60.
Egawa M, Tagami H. Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(2):251-60.
Egawa, M., & Tagami, H. (2008). Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration. The British Journal of Dermatology, 158(2), 251-60.
Egawa M, Tagami H. Comparison of the Depth Profiles of Water and Water-binding Substances in the Stratum Corneum Determined in Vivo By Raman Spectroscopy Between the Cheek and Volar Forearm Skin: Effects of Age, Seasonal Changes and Artificial Forced Hydration. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(2):251-60. PubMed PMID: 18047517.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration. AU - Egawa,M, AU - Tagami,H, Y1 - 2007/11/28/ PY - 2007/12/1/pubmed PY - 2008/4/25/medline PY - 2007/12/1/entrez SP - 251 EP - 60 JF - The British journal of dermatology JO - Br J Dermatol VL - 158 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dermatologists and cosmetic scientists are becoming increasingly interested in stratum corneum (SC) hydration because the SC plays an important role in keeping the skin surface soft and smooth. However, conventional in vivo noninvasive methods do not provide direct information about the depth profiles of water content or SC components that hold water. OBJECTIVES: To study the depth profiles of water and SC components in vivo by Raman spectroscopy, and to analyse the changes due to age, anatomical location, season and water application. METHODS: In vivo Raman spectra of the skin of the cheek and the volar forearm were obtained from 50 healthy Japanese volunteers of different ages (age range 22-76 years) with a confocal Raman spectrometer. The depth-dependent profiles of water and of SC water-binding components were calculated from the respective Raman spectra. RESULTS: The depth profile of the SC water content was observed in a pattern ranging from around 30% (water/wet tissue) at the outermost layer of the SC to about 70% at the deeper living layer. Although the water content at a depth of 10-30 microm in the forearm skin tended to be lower in older subjects than in younger subjects, no such difference was found in the much thinner SC of the cheek. Moreover, there was no seasonal difference in depth profile of water content from the mid part of the SC to an 80-microm depth from the skin surface both in the cheek and in the forearm. The water content of all the evaluated SC components showed a gradual decrease from the surface to deeper portions. The mean amounts of lactate in the forearm skin and cholesterol in the cheek skin were significantly higher in younger subjects than in older subjects. In contrast, the levels of free amino acids and trans-urocanic acid were higher in the forearm skin of older subjects than in younger subjects. The relative amounts of urea and lactate were the highest in summer, when that of trans-urocanic acid was the lowest. Prolonged water application on the forearm skin even for 90 min resulted in a remarkable increase in water content throughout the SC, even reaching the granular layer, which was only gradually released from the upper part of the SC after discontinuation of the hydration procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our present findings suggest that changes in the concentration depth profiles of water, free amino acids and lipids in the skin depend on age, anatomical site and season. These findings indicate the important roles played by various water-holding substances in the SC in the regulation of SC water content. SN - 0007-0963 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18047517/Comparison_of_the_depth_profiles_of_water_and_water_binding_substances_in_the_stratum_corneum_determined_in_vivo_by_Raman_spectroscopy_between_the_cheek_and_volar_forearm_skin:_effects_of_age_seasonal_changes_and_artificial_forced_hydration_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08311.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -