Membrane filtration for particles removal after ozonation-biofiltration.Water Sci Technol. 2007; 56(10):101-8.WS
With the process combination Ozonation-Biofiltration-Membranefiltration (the OBM-process) an average removal of 63% for UV-absorbance (UV(254)), 79% for color, and 28% for DOC was obtained treating NOM containing surface water. In this paper, focus has been made on the removal of particles after the ozonation and biofiltration treatment steps, using a submerged hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane reactor. For this purpose the membrane performed adequately. The ultrafiltration step did not have a significant impact on the removal of color, UV(254), and DOC. However, the SS and the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) was almost completely removed, and the turbidity was reduced by 65% by the membrane filtration, even at very high fluxes. Fouling occurred during operation, and operational factors of both the ozonation/biofiltration and the membrane reactor were important for controlling this. The experiments at pH 6.5 gave a higher permanent fouling than at pH 8.5, which was caused by the different oxidation pathways and consequently by the change in size and hydrophobicity of the by-products. On the other hand, the reversible fouling was less important at low pH. The mechanical cleaning was efficient, however, it seemed that the air scouring participated to the formation of submicron particles which favored the fouling.