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Bisphosphonates: an update on mechanisms of action and how these relate to clinical efficacy.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov; 1117:209-57.AN

Abstract

The bisphosphonates (BPs) are well established as the treatments of choice for disorders of excessive bone resorption, including Paget's disease of bone, myeloma and bone metastases, and osteoporosis. There is considerable new knowledge about how BPs work. Their classical pharmacological effects appear to result from two key properties: their affinity for bone mineral and their inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Mineral binding affinities differ among the clinically used BPs and may influence their differential distribution within bone, their biological potency, and their duration of action. The inhibitory effects of the nitrogen-containing BPs (including alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, and zoledronate) on osteoclasts appear to result from their inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), a key branch-point enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. FPPS generates isoprenoid lipids used for the posttranslational modification of small GTP-binding proteins essential for osteoclast function. Effects on other cellular pathways, such as preventing apoptosis in osteocytes, are emerging as other potentially important mechanisms of action. As a class, BPs share several common properties. However, as with other classes of drugs, there are obvious chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological differences among the various individual BPs. Each BP has a unique profile that may help to explain potential important clinical differences among the BPs, in terms of speed of onset of fracture reduction, antifracture efficacy at different skeletal sites, and the degree and duration of suppression of bone turnover. As we approach the 40th anniversary of the discovery of their biological effects, there remain further opportunities for using their properties for medical purposes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Oxford University Institute of Musculoskeletal Sciences, The Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom. graham.russell@ndos.ox.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18056045

Citation

Russell, R Graham G., et al. "Bisphosphonates: an Update On Mechanisms of Action and How These Relate to Clinical Efficacy." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1117, 2007, pp. 209-57.
Russell RG, Xia Z, Dunford JE, et al. Bisphosphonates: an update on mechanisms of action and how these relate to clinical efficacy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1117:209-57.
Russell, R. G., Xia, Z., Dunford, J. E., Oppermann, U., Kwaasi, A., Hulley, P. A., Kavanagh, K. L., Triffitt, J. T., Lundy, M. W., Phipps, R. J., Barnett, B. L., Coxon, F. P., Rogers, M. J., Watts, N. B., & Ebetino, F. H. (2007). Bisphosphonates: an update on mechanisms of action and how these relate to clinical efficacy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1117, 209-57.
Russell RG, et al. Bisphosphonates: an Update On Mechanisms of Action and How These Relate to Clinical Efficacy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1117:209-57. PubMed PMID: 18056045.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Bisphosphonates: an update on mechanisms of action and how these relate to clinical efficacy. AU - Russell,R Graham G, AU - Xia,Zhidao, AU - Dunford,James E, AU - Oppermann,Udo, AU - Kwaasi,Aaron, AU - Hulley,Philippa A, AU - Kavanagh,Kathryn L, AU - Triffitt,James T, AU - Lundy,Mark W, AU - Phipps,Roger J, AU - Barnett,Bobby L, AU - Coxon,Fraser P, AU - Rogers,Michael J, AU - Watts,Nelson B, AU - Ebetino,Frank H, PY - 2007/12/7/pubmed PY - 2008/2/7/medline PY - 2007/12/7/entrez SP - 209 EP - 57 JF - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences JO - Ann N Y Acad Sci VL - 1117 N2 - The bisphosphonates (BPs) are well established as the treatments of choice for disorders of excessive bone resorption, including Paget's disease of bone, myeloma and bone metastases, and osteoporosis. There is considerable new knowledge about how BPs work. Their classical pharmacological effects appear to result from two key properties: their affinity for bone mineral and their inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Mineral binding affinities differ among the clinically used BPs and may influence their differential distribution within bone, their biological potency, and their duration of action. The inhibitory effects of the nitrogen-containing BPs (including alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, and zoledronate) on osteoclasts appear to result from their inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), a key branch-point enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. FPPS generates isoprenoid lipids used for the posttranslational modification of small GTP-binding proteins essential for osteoclast function. Effects on other cellular pathways, such as preventing apoptosis in osteocytes, are emerging as other potentially important mechanisms of action. As a class, BPs share several common properties. However, as with other classes of drugs, there are obvious chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological differences among the various individual BPs. Each BP has a unique profile that may help to explain potential important clinical differences among the BPs, in terms of speed of onset of fracture reduction, antifracture efficacy at different skeletal sites, and the degree and duration of suppression of bone turnover. As we approach the 40th anniversary of the discovery of their biological effects, there remain further opportunities for using their properties for medical purposes. SN - 0077-8923 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18056045/Bisphosphonates:_an_update_on_mechanisms_of_action_and_how_these_relate_to_clinical_efficacy_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1402.089 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -