Anti-tumor metastatic activity of beta-glucan purified from mutated Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Jan; 8(1):36-42.II
The beta-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) enhance the innate immune system, but there is little evidence for its antitumor activity. To examine the antitumor and immunostimulating activities of beta-glucan (IS-2) purified from mutated S. cerevisiae, we made an experiment on innate immune response against metastasis of cancer cells by comparing with the beta-glucan from wild-type S. cerevisiae. In experimental lung metastasis of colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma or B16-BL6 melanoma cells, prophylactic administration of beta-glucan purified from mutated S. cerevisiae significantly inhibited lung metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, therapeutic administration of IS-2 also significantly inhibited the colon 26-M3.1 cell growth in mice. In an assay of liver and spleen metastasis produced by i.v. inoculation of L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma cells, IS-2 also significantly inhibited metastasis in CDF1 mice. Furthermore, pretreatment with IS-2 two days before tumor inoculation significantly prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. In an in vitro cytotoxicity analysis, IS-2 (up to 100 microg/ml) did not affect the growth of colon 26-M3.1 cells. In contrast, IS-2 enhanced splenocyte proliferating activity in a dose-dependent manner. Peritoneal macrophages stimulated with IS-2 produced various cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-12. In addition, treatment with IS-2 (20 microg/mouse) induced tumoricidal activity of peritoneal macrophages against colon 26-M3.1 cells. In an assay for natural killer (NK) cell activity, IS-2 (20 microg/mouse, i.v.) significantly augmented NK cytotoxicity against Yac-1 tumor cells at 2 days after IS-2 treatment. The depletion of NK cells by injection of rabbit anti-asialo GM1 serum abolished the inhibitory effect of IS-2 on lung metastasis of colon 26-M3.1 cells. These data suggest that IS-2 inhibits tumor metastasis via activation of macrophages and NK cells.