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[Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example].
Wiad Parazytol. 2007; 53(3):179-87.WP

Abstract

Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy. For that reason this thinking style was accepted by the state authorities and armies interested in possessing colonies. The governments organized and financed scientific institutes of tropical medicine and the hygienic parasitological journals. Also the researchers (A. Laveran, R. Ross, P. Manson) were rewarded for their epoch-making investigations in tropical disease problems. At the same time the progress in parasitology was prompted and the old theories in old thinking style were eliminated as false because of their practical uselessness. Their followers lost status of authorities. This analysis proved that external factors of science, i.e. social needs in historic periods play real role in the promoting of changes of scientific standards in the perception of new standards. Social needs form the broad social-cultural context of scientific activity and they influence seriously the way of thinking and investigations practice.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Zakład Ekologii Drobnoustrojów i Ochrony Srodowiska, Instytut Genetyki i Mikrobiologii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, ul. Przybyszewskiego 63, 51-148 Wrocław. lonc@microb.uni.wroc.plNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

English Abstract
Historical Article
Journal Article
Review

Language

pol

PubMed ID

18075149

Citation

Lonc, Elzbieta, and Bozena Płonka-Syroka. "[Historical Context of Parasitological Studies in Tropical Area, Malaria as an Example]." Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne, vol. 53, no. 3, 2007, pp. 179-87.
Lonc E, Płonka-Syroka B. [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example]. Wiad Parazytol. 2007;53(3):179-87.
Lonc, E., & Płonka-Syroka, B. (2007). [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example]. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne, 53(3), 179-87.
Lonc E, Płonka-Syroka B. [Historical Context of Parasitological Studies in Tropical Area, Malaria as an Example]. Wiad Parazytol. 2007;53(3):179-87. PubMed PMID: 18075149.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example]. AU - Lonc,Elzbieta, AU - Płonka-Syroka,Bozena, PY - 2007/12/14/pubmed PY - 2008/2/15/medline PY - 2007/12/14/entrez SP - 179 EP - 87 JF - Wiadomosci parazytologiczne JO - Wiad Parazytol VL - 53 IS - 3 N2 - Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy. For that reason this thinking style was accepted by the state authorities and armies interested in possessing colonies. The governments organized and financed scientific institutes of tropical medicine and the hygienic parasitological journals. Also the researchers (A. Laveran, R. Ross, P. Manson) were rewarded for their epoch-making investigations in tropical disease problems. At the same time the progress in parasitology was prompted and the old theories in old thinking style were eliminated as false because of their practical uselessness. Their followers lost status of authorities. This analysis proved that external factors of science, i.e. social needs in historic periods play real role in the promoting of changes of scientific standards in the perception of new standards. Social needs form the broad social-cultural context of scientific activity and they influence seriously the way of thinking and investigations practice. SN - 0043-5163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18075149/[Historical_context_of_parasitological_studies_in_tropical_area_malaria_as_an_example]_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -