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Smoking status as a predictor of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women of northwest Texas.
Prev Chronic Dis. 2008 Jan; 5(1):A09.PC

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of hip fracture for postmenopausal women living in rural and urban areas of Northwest Texas.

METHODS

Using an unmatched case-control design, we compared postmenopausal women who had recently experienced osteoporotic hip fracture with women who had not. Both study groups completed a questionnaire on demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors for osteoporotic hip fracture. We categorized smoking status as never smoked, former smoker, and current smoker. Covariates included age, weight, age at menopause, physical activity, estrogen replacement, calcium supplementation, and rurality. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regressions to test the associations between hip fracture and the independent variables of interest.

RESULTS

We found an increased risk of hip fracture for former smokers (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-4.21) and current smokers (adjusted OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.59-8.70). Residence in a rural county (population <100,000) also was associated with increased risk (adjusted OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.48-4.95).

CONCLUSION

Former and current smoking increased the risk of hip fracture in this population of postmenopausal women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Women's Health Division, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, Texas 79106, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18081998

Citation

Jenkins, Marjorie R., and Anne V. Denison. "Smoking Status as a Predictor of Hip Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women of Northwest Texas." Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 5, no. 1, 2008, pp. A09.
Jenkins MR, Denison AV. Smoking status as a predictor of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women of northwest Texas. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(1):A09.
Jenkins, M. R., & Denison, A. V. (2008). Smoking status as a predictor of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women of northwest Texas. Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(1), A09.
Jenkins MR, Denison AV. Smoking Status as a Predictor of Hip Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women of Northwest Texas. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(1):A09. PubMed PMID: 18081998.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking status as a predictor of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women of northwest Texas. AU - Jenkins,Marjorie R, AU - Denison,Anne V, Y1 - 2007/12/15/ PY - 2007/12/18/pubmed PY - 2008/1/11/medline PY - 2007/12/18/entrez SP - A09 EP - A09 JF - Preventing chronic disease JO - Prev Chronic Dis VL - 5 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of hip fracture for postmenopausal women living in rural and urban areas of Northwest Texas. METHODS: Using an unmatched case-control design, we compared postmenopausal women who had recently experienced osteoporotic hip fracture with women who had not. Both study groups completed a questionnaire on demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors for osteoporotic hip fracture. We categorized smoking status as never smoked, former smoker, and current smoker. Covariates included age, weight, age at menopause, physical activity, estrogen replacement, calcium supplementation, and rurality. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regressions to test the associations between hip fracture and the independent variables of interest. RESULTS: We found an increased risk of hip fracture for former smokers (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-4.21) and current smokers (adjusted OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.59-8.70). Residence in a rural county (population <100,000) also was associated with increased risk (adjusted OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.48-4.95). CONCLUSION: Former and current smoking increased the risk of hip fracture in this population of postmenopausal women. SN - 1545-1151 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18081998/Smoking_status_as_a_predictor_of_hip_fracture_risk_in_postmenopausal_women_of_northwest_Texas_ L2 - http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/jan/07_0036.htm DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -