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Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: a direct comparison of parr and smolts.
Aquat Toxicol 2008; 86(2):216-26AT

Abstract

Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) is known to impact anadromous salmonids and has been identified as a possible cause of Atlantic salmon population decline. Sensitive life-stages such as smolts may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of short-term (days-week) acid/Al exposure, however the extent and mechanism(s) of this remain unknown. To determine if Atlantic salmon smolts are more sensitive than parr to short-term acid/Al, parr and smolts held in the same experimental tanks were exposed to control (pH 6.3-6.6, 11-37 microgl(-1) Al(i)) and acid/Al (pH 5.0-5.4, 43-68 microgl(-1) Al(i)) conditions in the lab, and impacts on ion regulation, stress response and gill Al accumulation were examined after 2 and 6 days. Parr and smolts were also held in cages for 2 and 6 days in a reference (Rock River, RR) and an acid/Al-impacted tributary (Ball Mountain Brook, BMB) of the West River in Southern Vermont. In the lab, losses in plasma Cl(-) levels occurred in both control parr and smolts as compared to fish sampled prior to the start of the study, however smolts exposed to acid/Al experienced additional losses in plasma Cl(-) levels (9-14 mM) after 2 and 6 days, and increases in plasma cortisol (4.3-fold) and glucose (2.9-fold) levels after 6 days, whereas these parameters were not significantly affected by acid/Al in parr. Gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity was not affected by acid/Al in either life-stage. Both parr and smolts held at BMB (but not RR) exhibited declines in plasma Cl(-), and increases in plasma cortisol and glucose levels; these differences were significantly greater in smolts after 2 days but similar in parr and smolts after 6 days. Gill NKA activity was reduced 45-54% in both life-stages held at BMB for 6 days compared to reference fish at RR. In both studies, exposure to acid/Al resulted in gill Al accumulation in parr and smolts, with parr exhibiting two-fold greater gill Al than smolts after 6 days. Our results indicate that smolts are more sensitive than parr to short-term acid/Al. Increased sensitivity of smolts appears to be independent of a reduction in gill NKA activity and greater gill Al accumulation. Instead, increased sensitivity of smolts is likely a result of both the acquisition of seawater tolerance while still in freshwater and heightened stress responsiveness in preparation for seawater entry and residence.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, University of Massachusetts, 611 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. michelle.monette@yale.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18082903

Citation

Monette, Michelle Y., and Stephen D. McCormick. "Impacts of Short-term Acid and Aluminum Exposure On Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Physiology: a Direct Comparison of Parr and Smolts." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 86, no. 2, 2008, pp. 216-26.
Monette MY, McCormick SD. Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: a direct comparison of parr and smolts. Aquat Toxicol. 2008;86(2):216-26.
Monette, M. Y., & McCormick, S. D. (2008). Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: a direct comparison of parr and smolts. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 86(2), pp. 216-26.
Monette MY, McCormick SD. Impacts of Short-term Acid and Aluminum Exposure On Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Physiology: a Direct Comparison of Parr and Smolts. Aquat Toxicol. 2008 Jan 31;86(2):216-26. PubMed PMID: 18082903.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impacts of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) physiology: a direct comparison of parr and smolts. AU - Monette,Michelle Y, AU - McCormick,Stephen D, Y1 - 2007/11/09/ PY - 2007/07/26/received PY - 2007/10/29/revised PY - 2007/11/01/accepted PY - 2007/12/18/pubmed PY - 2008/12/17/medline PY - 2007/12/18/entrez SP - 216 EP - 26 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat. Toxicol. VL - 86 IS - 2 N2 - Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) is known to impact anadromous salmonids and has been identified as a possible cause of Atlantic salmon population decline. Sensitive life-stages such as smolts may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of short-term (days-week) acid/Al exposure, however the extent and mechanism(s) of this remain unknown. To determine if Atlantic salmon smolts are more sensitive than parr to short-term acid/Al, parr and smolts held in the same experimental tanks were exposed to control (pH 6.3-6.6, 11-37 microgl(-1) Al(i)) and acid/Al (pH 5.0-5.4, 43-68 microgl(-1) Al(i)) conditions in the lab, and impacts on ion regulation, stress response and gill Al accumulation were examined after 2 and 6 days. Parr and smolts were also held in cages for 2 and 6 days in a reference (Rock River, RR) and an acid/Al-impacted tributary (Ball Mountain Brook, BMB) of the West River in Southern Vermont. In the lab, losses in plasma Cl(-) levels occurred in both control parr and smolts as compared to fish sampled prior to the start of the study, however smolts exposed to acid/Al experienced additional losses in plasma Cl(-) levels (9-14 mM) after 2 and 6 days, and increases in plasma cortisol (4.3-fold) and glucose (2.9-fold) levels after 6 days, whereas these parameters were not significantly affected by acid/Al in parr. Gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity was not affected by acid/Al in either life-stage. Both parr and smolts held at BMB (but not RR) exhibited declines in plasma Cl(-), and increases in plasma cortisol and glucose levels; these differences were significantly greater in smolts after 2 days but similar in parr and smolts after 6 days. Gill NKA activity was reduced 45-54% in both life-stages held at BMB for 6 days compared to reference fish at RR. In both studies, exposure to acid/Al resulted in gill Al accumulation in parr and smolts, with parr exhibiting two-fold greater gill Al than smolts after 6 days. Our results indicate that smolts are more sensitive than parr to short-term acid/Al. Increased sensitivity of smolts appears to be independent of a reduction in gill NKA activity and greater gill Al accumulation. Instead, increased sensitivity of smolts is likely a result of both the acquisition of seawater tolerance while still in freshwater and heightened stress responsiveness in preparation for seawater entry and residence. SN - 0166-445X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18082903/Impacts_of_short_term_acid_and_aluminum_exposure_on_Atlantic_salmon__Salmo_salar__physiology:_a_direct_comparison_of_parr_and_smolts_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(07)00399-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -