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Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM

Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets raise plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. To test whether the nature of the carbohydrate affects metabolic responses, we conducted a randomized cross-over study using a short-term, intensive dietary modification.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Eight non-diabetic subjects and four subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes participated. They followed three isoenergetic diets, each for 3 days: high-fat (50% energy from fat), high-starch and high-sugar (each 70% energy from carbohydrate). Normal foods were provided. We measured plasma TG and glucose concentrations, fasting and after a standard test meal, on day 4 following each dietary period. Fasting TG concentrations were greatest following the high-sugar diet (mean+/-SEM for all subjects 1900+/-420micromol/l) and lowest following high-fat (1010+/-130micromol/l) (P=0.001); high-starch (mean 1500+/-310) and high-fat did not differ significantly (P=0.06). There was a greater effect in the diabetic subjects (diet x diabetes status interaction, P=0.008). Postprandial TG concentrations were similarly affected by prior diet (P<0.001) with each diet different from the others (P<or=0.01). The elevation of fasting TG on the high-sugar versus high-fat diet was strongly related to the average fasting TG concentration (P=0.01 across both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects). Fasting glucose concentrations were not affected by prior diet but postprandial glucose concentrations were (P=0.018), with significantly higher values after the high-fat than the high-sugar diet (P=0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

The short-term TG-raising effect of a very low-fat diet is dependent upon the nature of the carbohydrate, with a greater effect of a sugar-rich than a complex-carbohydrate-rich diet.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Blood Glucose
    Cross-Over Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Sucrose
    Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
    Fasting
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Postprandial Period
    Starch
    Triglycerides
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18083355

    Citation

    Culling, K S., et al. "Effects of Short-term Low- and High-carbohydrate Diets On Postprandial Metabolism in Non-diabetic and Diabetic Subjects." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 19, no. 5, 2009, pp. 345-51.
    Culling KS, Neil HA, Gilbert M, et al. Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(5):345-51.
    Culling, K. S., Neil, H. A., Gilbert, M., & Frayn, K. N. (2009). Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 19(5), pp. 345-51.
    Culling KS, et al. Effects of Short-term Low- and High-carbohydrate Diets On Postprandial Metabolism in Non-diabetic and Diabetic Subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(5):345-51. PubMed PMID: 18083355.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. AU - Culling,K S, AU - Neil,H A W, AU - Gilbert,M, AU - Frayn,K N, Y1 - 2007/12/20/ PY - 2007/03/26/received PY - 2007/09/13/revised PY - 2007/09/27/accepted PY - 2007/12/18/pubmed PY - 2009/8/14/medline PY - 2007/12/18/entrez SP - 345 EP - 51 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 19 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIM: Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets raise plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. To test whether the nature of the carbohydrate affects metabolic responses, we conducted a randomized cross-over study using a short-term, intensive dietary modification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight non-diabetic subjects and four subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes participated. They followed three isoenergetic diets, each for 3 days: high-fat (50% energy from fat), high-starch and high-sugar (each 70% energy from carbohydrate). Normal foods were provided. We measured plasma TG and glucose concentrations, fasting and after a standard test meal, on day 4 following each dietary period. Fasting TG concentrations were greatest following the high-sugar diet (mean+/-SEM for all subjects 1900+/-420micromol/l) and lowest following high-fat (1010+/-130micromol/l) (P=0.001); high-starch (mean 1500+/-310) and high-fat did not differ significantly (P=0.06). There was a greater effect in the diabetic subjects (diet x diabetes status interaction, P=0.008). Postprandial TG concentrations were similarly affected by prior diet (P<0.001) with each diet different from the others (P<or=0.01). The elevation of fasting TG on the high-sugar versus high-fat diet was strongly related to the average fasting TG concentration (P=0.01 across both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects). Fasting glucose concentrations were not affected by prior diet but postprandial glucose concentrations were (P=0.018), with significantly higher values after the high-fat than the high-sugar diet (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The short-term TG-raising effect of a very low-fat diet is dependent upon the nature of the carbohydrate, with a greater effect of a sugar-rich than a complex-carbohydrate-rich diet. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18083355/Effects_of_short_term_low__and_high_carbohydrate_diets_on_postprandial_metabolism_in_non_diabetic_and_diabetic_subjects_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(07)00183-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -