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Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 19(5):345-51NM

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM

Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets raise plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. To test whether the nature of the carbohydrate affects metabolic responses, we conducted a randomized cross-over study using a short-term, intensive dietary modification.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Eight non-diabetic subjects and four subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes participated. They followed three isoenergetic diets, each for 3 days: high-fat (50% energy from fat), high-starch and high-sugar (each 70% energy from carbohydrate). Normal foods were provided. We measured plasma TG and glucose concentrations, fasting and after a standard test meal, on day 4 following each dietary period. Fasting TG concentrations were greatest following the high-sugar diet (mean+/-SEM for all subjects 1900+/-420micromol/l) and lowest following high-fat (1010+/-130micromol/l) (P=0.001); high-starch (mean 1500+/-310) and high-fat did not differ significantly (P=0.06). There was a greater effect in the diabetic subjects (diet x diabetes status interaction, P=0.008). Postprandial TG concentrations were similarly affected by prior diet (P<0.001) with each diet different from the others (P<or=0.01). The elevation of fasting TG on the high-sugar versus high-fat diet was strongly related to the average fasting TG concentration (P=0.01 across both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects). Fasting glucose concentrations were not affected by prior diet but postprandial glucose concentrations were (P=0.018), with significantly higher values after the high-fat than the high-sugar diet (P=0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

The short-term TG-raising effect of a very low-fat diet is dependent upon the nature of the carbohydrate, with a greater effect of a sugar-rich than a complex-carbohydrate-rich diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18083355

Citation

Culling, K S., et al. "Effects of Short-term Low- and High-carbohydrate Diets On Postprandial Metabolism in Non-diabetic and Diabetic Subjects." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 19, no. 5, 2009, pp. 345-51.
Culling KS, Neil HA, Gilbert M, et al. Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(5):345-51.
Culling, K. S., Neil, H. A., Gilbert, M., & Frayn, K. N. (2009). Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 19(5), pp. 345-51.
Culling KS, et al. Effects of Short-term Low- and High-carbohydrate Diets On Postprandial Metabolism in Non-diabetic and Diabetic Subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(5):345-51. PubMed PMID: 18083355.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of short-term low- and high-carbohydrate diets on postprandial metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. AU - Culling,K S, AU - Neil,H A W, AU - Gilbert,M, AU - Frayn,K N, Y1 - 2007/12/20/ PY - 2007/03/26/received PY - 2007/09/13/revised PY - 2007/09/27/accepted PY - 2007/12/18/pubmed PY - 2009/8/14/medline PY - 2007/12/18/entrez SP - 345 EP - 51 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 19 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIM: Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets raise plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. To test whether the nature of the carbohydrate affects metabolic responses, we conducted a randomized cross-over study using a short-term, intensive dietary modification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight non-diabetic subjects and four subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes participated. They followed three isoenergetic diets, each for 3 days: high-fat (50% energy from fat), high-starch and high-sugar (each 70% energy from carbohydrate). Normal foods were provided. We measured plasma TG and glucose concentrations, fasting and after a standard test meal, on day 4 following each dietary period. Fasting TG concentrations were greatest following the high-sugar diet (mean+/-SEM for all subjects 1900+/-420micromol/l) and lowest following high-fat (1010+/-130micromol/l) (P=0.001); high-starch (mean 1500+/-310) and high-fat did not differ significantly (P=0.06). There was a greater effect in the diabetic subjects (diet x diabetes status interaction, P=0.008). Postprandial TG concentrations were similarly affected by prior diet (P<0.001) with each diet different from the others (P<or=0.01). The elevation of fasting TG on the high-sugar versus high-fat diet was strongly related to the average fasting TG concentration (P=0.01 across both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects). Fasting glucose concentrations were not affected by prior diet but postprandial glucose concentrations were (P=0.018), with significantly higher values after the high-fat than the high-sugar diet (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The short-term TG-raising effect of a very low-fat diet is dependent upon the nature of the carbohydrate, with a greater effect of a sugar-rich than a complex-carbohydrate-rich diet. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18083355/Effects_of_short_term_low__and_high_carbohydrate_diets_on_postprandial_metabolism_in_non_diabetic_and_diabetic_subjects_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(07)00183-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -