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Selected infectious agents and risk of schizophrenia among U.S. military personnel.
Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165(1):99-106AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A number of studies have reported associations between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and the risk of schizophrenia. Most existing studies have used small populations and postdiagnosis specimens. As part of a larger research program, the authors conducted a hypothesis-generating case control study of T. gondii antibodies among individuals discharged from the U.S. military with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and serum specimens available from both before and after diagnosis.

METHOD

The patients (N=180) were military members who had been hospitalized and discharged from military service with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Healthy comparison subjects (3:1 matched on several factors) were members of the military who were not discharged. The U.S. military routinely collects and stores serum specimens of military service members. The authors used microplate-enzyme immunoassay to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to T. gondii, six herpes viruses, and influenza A and B viruses and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody levels to T. gondii in pre- and postdiagnosis serum specimens.

RESULTS

A significant positive association between the T. gondii IgG antibody and schizophrenia was found; the overall hazard ratio was 1.24. The association between IgG and schizophrenia varied by the time between the serum specimen collection and onset of illness.

CONCLUSION

The authors found significant associations between increased levels of scaled T. gondii IgG antibodies and schizophrenia for antibodies measured both prior to and after diagnosis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Division of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20901. David.Niebuhr@us.army.mil.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18086751

Citation

Niebuhr, David W., et al. "Selected Infectious Agents and Risk of Schizophrenia Among U.S. Military Personnel." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 1, 2008, pp. 99-106.
Niebuhr DW, Millikan AM, Cowan DN, et al. Selected infectious agents and risk of schizophrenia among U.S. military personnel. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(1):99-106.
Niebuhr, D. W., Millikan, A. M., Cowan, D. N., Yolken, R., Li, Y., & Weber, N. S. (2008). Selected infectious agents and risk of schizophrenia among U.S. military personnel. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(1), pp. 99-106.
Niebuhr DW, et al. Selected Infectious Agents and Risk of Schizophrenia Among U.S. Military Personnel. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(1):99-106. PubMed PMID: 18086751.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Selected infectious agents and risk of schizophrenia among U.S. military personnel. AU - Niebuhr,David W, AU - Millikan,Amy M, AU - Cowan,David N, AU - Yolken,Robert, AU - Li,Yuanzhang, AU - Weber,Natalya S, Y1 - 2007/12/17/ PY - 2007/12/19/pubmed PY - 2008/2/19/medline PY - 2007/12/19/entrez SP - 99 EP - 106 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 165 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: A number of studies have reported associations between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and the risk of schizophrenia. Most existing studies have used small populations and postdiagnosis specimens. As part of a larger research program, the authors conducted a hypothesis-generating case control study of T. gondii antibodies among individuals discharged from the U.S. military with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and serum specimens available from both before and after diagnosis. METHOD: The patients (N=180) were military members who had been hospitalized and discharged from military service with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Healthy comparison subjects (3:1 matched on several factors) were members of the military who were not discharged. The U.S. military routinely collects and stores serum specimens of military service members. The authors used microplate-enzyme immunoassay to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to T. gondii, six herpes viruses, and influenza A and B viruses and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody levels to T. gondii in pre- and postdiagnosis serum specimens. RESULTS: A significant positive association between the T. gondii IgG antibody and schizophrenia was found; the overall hazard ratio was 1.24. The association between IgG and schizophrenia varied by the time between the serum specimen collection and onset of illness. CONCLUSION: The authors found significant associations between increased levels of scaled T. gondii IgG antibodies and schizophrenia for antibodies measured both prior to and after diagnosis. SN - 0002-953X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18086751/Selected_infectious_agents_and_risk_of_schizophrenia_among_U_S__military_personnel_ L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06081254?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -