Muscularity concerns among men: development of attitudinal and perceptual measures.Body Image. 2004 May; 1(2):169-81.BI
The current study reports the development and psychometrics of a figure rating scale with leanness and muscularity dimensions and a 13-item questionnaire assessing symptoms associated with muscle dysmorphia (MD). Three separate samples of men and women completed the muscle dysmorphic disorder inventory (MDDI), the bodybuilder image grid (BIG) or both to measure 1-week test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity and valid placement of BIG figures along interval scales of body fat and lean muscle mass. The MDDI and MDDI subscales (drive for size, appearance intolerance, and functional impairment) had good reliability, internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity. The BIG had good to excellent test-retest reliability, good convergent and divergent validity and validity as an interval scale. Implications for characterizing body image disturbance in men and benefits and limitations of the measures are discussed.