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Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the development of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2).
Am J Hypertens. 2008 Jan; 21(1):17-22.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The metabolic syndrome is a predictor of diabetes and coronary events. We hypothesized that it also predicts hypertension.

METHODS

A total of 1,944 subjects (901 men and 1,043 women; age 46 +/- 12 years) from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Survey were recruited in 1995-1996 and restudied in 2000-2004. The prevalence of hypertension and factors predicting its development were determined.

RESULTS

In 2000-2004, hypertension was found in 23.2% of the men and 17.2% of the women. Of the 1,602 subjects who were normotensive at baseline, 258 subjects developed hypertension after a median interval of 6.4 years. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, the hazard ratios associated with the metabolic syndrome were 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-2.54) and 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.39), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the metabolic syndrome for identifying subjects who will develop hypertension in this population were 34.7 and 85.4% (NCEP criteria), and 33.1 and 85.5% (IDF criteria), respectively. The development of hypertension was related to the number of components of the metabolic syndrome (other than raised blood pressure), present in men (P = 0.003) and in women (P = 0.001). Using multivariate analysis, age, baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), and the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio were found to be significant predictors of the development of hypertension. Compared with optimal blood pressure, the hazards of developing hypertension associated with normal or high-normal blood pressure were 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68-3.17) and 3.48 (95% CI: 2.52-4.81), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Blood pressure, when not optimal, is the predominant predictor of hypertension. The metabolic syndrome contributes to the risk, especially when blood pressure is optimal.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. b.cheung@bham.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18091739

Citation

Cheung, Bernard M Y., et al. "Relationship Between the Metabolic Syndrome and the Development of Hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2)." American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 1, 2008, pp. 17-22.
Cheung BM, Wat NM, Man YB, et al. Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the development of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2). Am J Hypertens. 2008;21(1):17-22.
Cheung, B. M., Wat, N. M., Man, Y. B., Tam, S., Cheng, C. H., Leung, G. M., Woo, J., Janus, E. D., Lau, C. P., Lam, T. H., & Lam, K. S. (2008). Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the development of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2). American Journal of Hypertension, 21(1), 17-22.
Cheung BM, et al. Relationship Between the Metabolic Syndrome and the Development of Hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2). Am J Hypertens. 2008;21(1):17-22. PubMed PMID: 18091739.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the development of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2). AU - Cheung,Bernard M Y, AU - Wat,Nelson M S, AU - Man,Y B, AU - Tam,Sidney, AU - Cheng,C H, AU - Leung,Gabriel M, AU - Woo,Jean, AU - Janus,Edward D, AU - Lau,C P, AU - Lam,T H, AU - Lam,Karen S L, PY - 2007/12/20/pubmed PY - 2008/3/14/medline PY - 2007/12/20/entrez SP - 17 EP - 22 JF - American journal of hypertension JO - Am. J. Hypertens. VL - 21 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a predictor of diabetes and coronary events. We hypothesized that it also predicts hypertension. METHODS: A total of 1,944 subjects (901 men and 1,043 women; age 46 +/- 12 years) from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Survey were recruited in 1995-1996 and restudied in 2000-2004. The prevalence of hypertension and factors predicting its development were determined. RESULTS: In 2000-2004, hypertension was found in 23.2% of the men and 17.2% of the women. Of the 1,602 subjects who were normotensive at baseline, 258 subjects developed hypertension after a median interval of 6.4 years. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, the hazard ratios associated with the metabolic syndrome were 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-2.54) and 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.39), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the metabolic syndrome for identifying subjects who will develop hypertension in this population were 34.7 and 85.4% (NCEP criteria), and 33.1 and 85.5% (IDF criteria), respectively. The development of hypertension was related to the number of components of the metabolic syndrome (other than raised blood pressure), present in men (P = 0.003) and in women (P = 0.001). Using multivariate analysis, age, baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), and the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio were found to be significant predictors of the development of hypertension. Compared with optimal blood pressure, the hazards of developing hypertension associated with normal or high-normal blood pressure were 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68-3.17) and 3.48 (95% CI: 2.52-4.81), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure, when not optimal, is the predominant predictor of hypertension. The metabolic syndrome contributes to the risk, especially when blood pressure is optimal. SN - 0895-7061 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18091739/Relationship_between_the_metabolic_syndrome_and_the_development_of_hypertension_in_the_Hong_Kong_Cardiovascular_Risk_Factor_Prevalence_Study_2__CRISPS2__ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajh/article-lookup/doi/10.1038/ajh.2007.19 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -