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Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Dec; 48(12):1251-8.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap between ADHD and autism at the behavioural, neurocognitive, and brain levels are needed.

METHODS

We examined regional grey matter differences and similarities in children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD in comparison to healthy controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry.

RESULTS

With regard to clinical criteria, the clinical groups did not differ with respect to ADHD symptoms; however, only patients with ASD showed deficits in social communication and interaction, according to parental rating. Structural abnormalities across both clinical groups compared to controls became evident as grey matter reductions in the left medial temporal lobe and as higher grey matter volumes in the left inferior parietal cortex. In addition, autism-specific brain abnormalities were found as increased grey matter volume in the right supramarginal gyrus.

CONCLUSIONS

While the shared structural deviations in the medial temporal lobe might be attributed to an unspecific delay in brain development and might be associated with memory deficits, the structural abnormalities in the inferior parietal lobe may correspond to attentional deficits observed in both ASD and ADHD. By contrast, the autism-specific grey matter abnormalities near the right temporo-parietal junction may be associated with impaired 'theory of mind' abilities. These findings shed some light on both similarities and differences in the neurocognitive profiles of ADHD and ASD patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Child Neuropsychology Section, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital Aachen, Germany. s.brieber@fz-juelich.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18093031

Citation

Brieber, Sarah, et al. "Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients With Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, vol. 48, no. 12, 2007, pp. 1251-8.
Brieber S, Neufang S, Bruning N, et al. Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48(12):1251-8.
Brieber, S., Neufang, S., Bruning, N., Kamp-Becker, I., Remschmidt, H., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Fink, G. R., & Konrad, K. (2007). Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48(12), 1251-8.
Brieber S, et al. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients With Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48(12):1251-8. PubMed PMID: 18093031.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Brieber,Sarah, AU - Neufang,Susanne, AU - Bruning,Nicole, AU - Kamp-Becker,Inge, AU - Remschmidt,Helmut, AU - Herpertz-Dahlmann,Beate, AU - Fink,Gereon R, AU - Konrad,Kerstin, PY - 2007/12/21/pubmed PY - 2008/2/8/medline PY - 2007/12/21/entrez SP - 1251 EP - 8 JF - Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines JO - J Child Psychol Psychiatry VL - 48 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap between ADHD and autism at the behavioural, neurocognitive, and brain levels are needed. METHODS: We examined regional grey matter differences and similarities in children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD in comparison to healthy controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: With regard to clinical criteria, the clinical groups did not differ with respect to ADHD symptoms; however, only patients with ASD showed deficits in social communication and interaction, according to parental rating. Structural abnormalities across both clinical groups compared to controls became evident as grey matter reductions in the left medial temporal lobe and as higher grey matter volumes in the left inferior parietal cortex. In addition, autism-specific brain abnormalities were found as increased grey matter volume in the right supramarginal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: While the shared structural deviations in the medial temporal lobe might be attributed to an unspecific delay in brain development and might be associated with memory deficits, the structural abnormalities in the inferior parietal lobe may correspond to attentional deficits observed in both ASD and ADHD. By contrast, the autism-specific grey matter abnormalities near the right temporo-parietal junction may be associated with impaired 'theory of mind' abilities. These findings shed some light on both similarities and differences in the neurocognitive profiles of ADHD and ASD patients. SN - 0021-9630 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18093031/Structural_brain_abnormalities_in_adolescents_with_autism_spectrum_disorder_and_patients_with_attention_deficit/hyperactivity_disorder_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -