Coccidioidomycosis and other endemic mycoses in Mexico.Rev Iberoam Micol. 2007 Dec 31; 24(4):249-58.RI
The endemic mycoses traditionally include coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Although sporotrichosis and chromomycosis are technically not included among the endemic mycoses, they are frequently diagnosed in Mexico. Most systemic endemic mycoses are a consequence of inhaling the fungi, while subcutaneous mycoses are acquired through the inoculation of vegetable matter or soil containing the organism. Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus. Approximately 60% of exposures result in asymptomatic infection; in the rest there are protean manifestations that range from a benign syndrome also known as "Valley Fever" to progressive pulmonary or extrapulmonary disease. Histoplasmosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is endemic to the Americas. Pulmonary histoplasmosis manifestations are protean, ranging from a brief period of malaise to a severe, prolonged illness. The spectrum of illness in disseminated histoplasmosis ranges from a chronic, intermittent course to an acute and rapidly fatal infection. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic, granulomatous systemic disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that characteristically produces a primary pulmonary infection, often asymptomatic, and then disseminates to form ulcerative granulomata of the oral, nasal and occasionally the gastrointestinal mucosa. Sporotrichosis, caused by Sporothrix schenckii, has diverse clinical manifestations; the most frequent is the lymphocutaneous form. Generally, infection results from inoculation of the fungus through thorns, splinters, scratches and small traumas. Chromomycosis (Chromoblastomycosis) is a slowly progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis attributed to various saprophyte Hypomycetes fungi. The primary lesion is also thought to develop as a result of percutaneous traumatic inoculation.