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A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep.
J Anim Sci 2008; 86(14 Suppl):E188-204JA

Abstract

Supplementing ruminant animal diets with fat has been investigated as a means to influence a variety of physiological processes or to alter fatty acid composition of food products derived from ruminant animals. Several digestion experiments have been conducted with beef cattle and sheep to elucidate the effects of supplemental fat on utilization of other dietary components. Negative associative effects are not likely to be observed in ruminants consuming forage-based diets with supplemental fat at < or = 2% of DMI. Inclusion of supplemental fat at < or = 3% of DM is recommended to obtain the most benefit from the energy contained within the fat and other dietary components in high-forage diets. For ruminants fed high-concentrate diets, supplementing fat at 6% of diet DM is expected to have minimal impacts on utilization of other dietary components. Although there is greater potential to supply the ruminant animal with unsaturated fatty acids from dietary origin if fat is added to high-concentrate diets, incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids results in an increase in duodenal flow of 18:1 trans fatty acids regardless of basal diet consumed by the animal. The biohydrogenation intermediate 18:1 trans-11 (trans-vaccenic acid) is the likely precursor to cis-9, trans-11 CLA because the magnitude of increase in CLA content in tissues or milk of ruminants fed fat is much greater than the increase in CLA presented to the small intestine of ruminants fed fat supplements. Duodenal flow of trans-vaccenic acid is also substantially greater than CLA. Increasing unsaturated fatty acids status of ruminants imparts physiological responses that are separate than the energy value of supplemental fat. Manipulating maternal diet to improve unsaturated fatty acid status of the neonate has practical benefits for animals experiencing stress due to exposure to cold environments or conditions which mount an immune response. Supplementing fat to provide an additional 16 to 18 g/d of 18:2n-6 to the small intestine of beef cows for the first 60 to 90 d of lactation will have negative impacts on reproduction and may impair immune function of the suckling calf. Consequences of the suckling animal increasing its intake of unsaturated fatty acids because of manipulation of maternal diet warrants further investigation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071-3684, USA. brethess@uwyo.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18156350

Citation

Hess, B W., et al. "A Decade of Developments in the Area of Fat Supplementation Research With Beef Cattle and Sheep." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 86, no. 14 Suppl, 2008, pp. E188-204.
Hess BW, Moss GE, Rule DC. A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep. J Anim Sci. 2008;86(14 Suppl):E188-204.
Hess, B. W., Moss, G. E., & Rule, D. C. (2008). A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep. Journal of Animal Science, 86(14 Suppl), pp. E188-204.
Hess BW, Moss GE, Rule DC. A Decade of Developments in the Area of Fat Supplementation Research With Beef Cattle and Sheep. J Anim Sci. 2008;86(14 Suppl):E188-204. PubMed PMID: 18156350.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep. AU - Hess,B W, AU - Moss,G E, AU - Rule,D C, Y1 - 2007/12/21/ PY - 2007/12/25/pubmed PY - 2008/7/2/medline PY - 2007/12/25/entrez SP - E188 EP - 204 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J. Anim. Sci. VL - 86 IS - 14 Suppl N2 - Supplementing ruminant animal diets with fat has been investigated as a means to influence a variety of physiological processes or to alter fatty acid composition of food products derived from ruminant animals. Several digestion experiments have been conducted with beef cattle and sheep to elucidate the effects of supplemental fat on utilization of other dietary components. Negative associative effects are not likely to be observed in ruminants consuming forage-based diets with supplemental fat at < or = 2% of DMI. Inclusion of supplemental fat at < or = 3% of DM is recommended to obtain the most benefit from the energy contained within the fat and other dietary components in high-forage diets. For ruminants fed high-concentrate diets, supplementing fat at 6% of diet DM is expected to have minimal impacts on utilization of other dietary components. Although there is greater potential to supply the ruminant animal with unsaturated fatty acids from dietary origin if fat is added to high-concentrate diets, incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids results in an increase in duodenal flow of 18:1 trans fatty acids regardless of basal diet consumed by the animal. The biohydrogenation intermediate 18:1 trans-11 (trans-vaccenic acid) is the likely precursor to cis-9, trans-11 CLA because the magnitude of increase in CLA content in tissues or milk of ruminants fed fat is much greater than the increase in CLA presented to the small intestine of ruminants fed fat supplements. Duodenal flow of trans-vaccenic acid is also substantially greater than CLA. Increasing unsaturated fatty acids status of ruminants imparts physiological responses that are separate than the energy value of supplemental fat. Manipulating maternal diet to improve unsaturated fatty acid status of the neonate has practical benefits for animals experiencing stress due to exposure to cold environments or conditions which mount an immune response. Supplementing fat to provide an additional 16 to 18 g/d of 18:2n-6 to the small intestine of beef cows for the first 60 to 90 d of lactation will have negative impacts on reproduction and may impair immune function of the suckling calf. Consequences of the suckling animal increasing its intake of unsaturated fatty acids because of manipulation of maternal diet warrants further investigation. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18156350/A_decade_of_developments_in_the_area_of_fat_supplementation_research_with_beef_cattle_and_sheep_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2007-0546 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -