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Water balance and salt losses in competitive football.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2007; 17(6):583-94IJ

Abstract

Fluid balance and sweat electrolyte losses were measured in the players and substitutes engaged in an English Premier League Reserve competitive football match played at an ambient temperature of 6-8 degrees C (relative humidity 50-60%). Intake of water and/or sports drink and urine output were recorded, and sweat composition was estimated from absorbent swabs applied to 4 skin sites for the duration of the game. Body mass was recorded before and after the game. Data were obtained for 22 players (age 21 y, height 180 cm, mass 78 kg) and 9 substitutes (17 y, 181 cm, 72 kg). All were male. Two of the players were dismissed during the game, and none of the substitutes played any part in the game. Mean +/- SD sweat loss of players amounted to 1.68 +/- 0.40 L, and mean fluid intake was 0.84 +/- 0.47 L (n = 20), with no difference between teams. Corresponding values for substitutes, none of whom played in the match, were 0.40 +/- 0.24 L and 0.78 +/- 0.46 L (n = 9). Prematch urine osmolality was 678 +/- 344 mOsm/kg: 11 of the 31 players provided samples with an osmolality of more than 900 mOsm/kg. Sweat sodium concentration was 62 +/- 13 mmol/L, and total sweat sodium loss during the game was 2.4 +/- 0.8 g. These descriptive data show a large individual variability in hydration status, sweat losses, and drinking behaviors in a competitive football match played in a cool environment, highlighting the need for individualized assessment of hydration status to optimize fluid-replacement strategies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Longborough University, Longborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU England.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18156663

Citation

Maughan, Ronald J., et al. "Water Balance and Salt Losses in Competitive Football." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 6, 2007, pp. 583-94.
Maughan RJ, Watson P, Evans GH, et al. Water balance and salt losses in competitive football. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17(6):583-94.
Maughan, R. J., Watson, P., Evans, G. H., Broad, N., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2007). Water balance and salt losses in competitive football. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(6), pp. 583-94.
Maughan RJ, et al. Water Balance and Salt Losses in Competitive Football. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17(6):583-94. PubMed PMID: 18156663.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Water balance and salt losses in competitive football. AU - Maughan,Ronald J, AU - Watson,Phillip, AU - Evans,Gethin H, AU - Broad,Nicholas, AU - Shirreffs,Susan M, PY - 2007/12/25/pubmed PY - 2008/3/4/medline PY - 2007/12/25/entrez SP - 583 EP - 94 JF - International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism JO - Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab VL - 17 IS - 6 N2 - Fluid balance and sweat electrolyte losses were measured in the players and substitutes engaged in an English Premier League Reserve competitive football match played at an ambient temperature of 6-8 degrees C (relative humidity 50-60%). Intake of water and/or sports drink and urine output were recorded, and sweat composition was estimated from absorbent swabs applied to 4 skin sites for the duration of the game. Body mass was recorded before and after the game. Data were obtained for 22 players (age 21 y, height 180 cm, mass 78 kg) and 9 substitutes (17 y, 181 cm, 72 kg). All were male. Two of the players were dismissed during the game, and none of the substitutes played any part in the game. Mean +/- SD sweat loss of players amounted to 1.68 +/- 0.40 L, and mean fluid intake was 0.84 +/- 0.47 L (n = 20), with no difference between teams. Corresponding values for substitutes, none of whom played in the match, were 0.40 +/- 0.24 L and 0.78 +/- 0.46 L (n = 9). Prematch urine osmolality was 678 +/- 344 mOsm/kg: 11 of the 31 players provided samples with an osmolality of more than 900 mOsm/kg. Sweat sodium concentration was 62 +/- 13 mmol/L, and total sweat sodium loss during the game was 2.4 +/- 0.8 g. These descriptive data show a large individual variability in hydration status, sweat losses, and drinking behaviors in a competitive football match played in a cool environment, highlighting the need for individualized assessment of hydration status to optimize fluid-replacement strategies. SN - 1526-484X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18156663/Water_balance_and_salt_losses_in_competitive_football_ L2 - https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijsnem.17.6.583 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -