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Concentrations of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine in blood samples from apprehended drivers in Sweden.
Forensic Sci Int. 2008 May 20; 177(2-3):133-9.FS

Abstract

Cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE) were determined in blood samples from people arrested in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) over a 5-year period (2000-2004). Venous blood or urine if available, was subjected to a broad toxicological screening analysis for cannabis, cocaine metabolite, amphetamines, opiates and the major benzodiazepines. Verification and quantitative analysis of cocaine and BZE in blood was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.02mg/L for both substances. Over the study period 26,567 blood samples were analyzed and cocaine and/or BZE were verified in 795 cases (3%). The motorists using cocaine were predominantly men (>96%) with an average age of 28.3+/-7.1 years (+/-standard deviation, S.D.). The concentration of cocaine was below LOQ in 574 cases although BZE was determined at mean, median and highest concentrations of 0.19mg/L, 0.12mg/L and 1.3mg/L, respectively. In 221 cases, cocaine and BZE were together in the blood samples at mean and (median) concentrations of 0.076mg/L (0.05mg/L) and 0.859mg/L (0.70mg/L), respectively. The concentrations of BZE were always higher than the parent drug; mean BZE/cocaine ratio 14.2 (median 10.9) range 1-55. Cocaine and BZE were the only psychoactive substances reported in N=61 cases at mean (median) and highest concentrations of 0.095 (0.07) and 0.5mg/L for cocaine and 1.01 (0.70) and 3.1mg/L for BZE. Typical signs of drug influence noted by the arresting police officers included bloodshot and glossy eyes, agitation, difficulty in sitting still and incoherent speech.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Artillerigatan 12, SE-581 33 Linköping, Sweden. wayne.jones@RMV.SENo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18164886

Citation

Jones, A W., et al. "Concentrations of Cocaine and Its Major Metabolite Benzoylecgonine in Blood Samples From Apprehended Drivers in Sweden." Forensic Science International, vol. 177, no. 2-3, 2008, pp. 133-9.
Jones AW, Holmgren A, Kugelberg FC. Concentrations of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine in blood samples from apprehended drivers in Sweden. Forensic Sci Int. 2008;177(2-3):133-9.
Jones, A. W., Holmgren, A., & Kugelberg, F. C. (2008). Concentrations of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine in blood samples from apprehended drivers in Sweden. Forensic Science International, 177(2-3), 133-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.11.009
Jones AW, Holmgren A, Kugelberg FC. Concentrations of Cocaine and Its Major Metabolite Benzoylecgonine in Blood Samples From Apprehended Drivers in Sweden. Forensic Sci Int. 2008 May 20;177(2-3):133-9. PubMed PMID: 18164886.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Concentrations of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine in blood samples from apprehended drivers in Sweden. AU - Jones,A W, AU - Holmgren,A, AU - Kugelberg,F C, Y1 - 2007/12/31/ PY - 2007/09/05/received PY - 2007/10/15/revised PY - 2007/11/14/accepted PY - 2008/1/1/pubmed PY - 2008/5/8/medline PY - 2008/1/1/entrez SP - 133 EP - 9 JF - Forensic science international JO - Forensic Sci Int VL - 177 IS - 2-3 N2 - Cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE) were determined in blood samples from people arrested in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) over a 5-year period (2000-2004). Venous blood or urine if available, was subjected to a broad toxicological screening analysis for cannabis, cocaine metabolite, amphetamines, opiates and the major benzodiazepines. Verification and quantitative analysis of cocaine and BZE in blood was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.02mg/L for both substances. Over the study period 26,567 blood samples were analyzed and cocaine and/or BZE were verified in 795 cases (3%). The motorists using cocaine were predominantly men (>96%) with an average age of 28.3+/-7.1 years (+/-standard deviation, S.D.). The concentration of cocaine was below LOQ in 574 cases although BZE was determined at mean, median and highest concentrations of 0.19mg/L, 0.12mg/L and 1.3mg/L, respectively. In 221 cases, cocaine and BZE were together in the blood samples at mean and (median) concentrations of 0.076mg/L (0.05mg/L) and 0.859mg/L (0.70mg/L), respectively. The concentrations of BZE were always higher than the parent drug; mean BZE/cocaine ratio 14.2 (median 10.9) range 1-55. Cocaine and BZE were the only psychoactive substances reported in N=61 cases at mean (median) and highest concentrations of 0.095 (0.07) and 0.5mg/L for cocaine and 1.01 (0.70) and 3.1mg/L for BZE. Typical signs of drug influence noted by the arresting police officers included bloodshot and glossy eyes, agitation, difficulty in sitting still and incoherent speech. SN - 1872-6283 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18164886/Concentrations_of_cocaine_and_its_major_metabolite_benzoylecgonine_in_blood_samples_from_apprehended_drivers_in_Sweden_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0379-0738(07)00806-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -