Use of hydrogel coating to improve the performance of implanted glucose sensors.Biosens Bioelectron. 2008 Mar 14; 23(8):1278-84.BB
In order to protect implanted glucose sensors from biofouling, novel hydrogels (146-217% water by mass) were developed based on a copolymer of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (DHPMA). The porosity and mechanical properties of the hydrogels were improved using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The results of SEM and DSC FT-IT analyses showed that the hydrogel (VP30) produced from a monomeric mixture of 34.5% HEMA, 34.5% DHPMA, 30% VP and 1% EDGMA (mol%) had an excellent pore structure, high water content at swelling equilibrium (W eq=166% by mass) and acceptable mechanical properties. Two kinds of VP30-coated sensors, Pt/GOx/VP30 and Pt/GOx/epoxy-polyurethane (EPU)/VP30 sensors were examined in glucose solutions during a period of 4 weeks. The Pt/GOx/VP30 sensors produced large response currents but the response linearity was poor. Therefore, further studies were focused on the Pt/GOx/EPU/VP30 sensors. With a diffusion-limiting epoxy-polyurethane membrane, the linearity was improved (2-30 mM) and the response time was within 5 min. Eight Pt/GOx/EPU/VP30 sensors were subcutaneously implanted in rats and tested once per week over 4 weeks. All of the implanted sensors kept functioning for at least 21 days and 3 out of 8 sensors still functioned at day 28. Histology revealed that the fibrous capsules surrounding hydrogel-coated sensors were thinner than those surrounding Pt/GOx/EPU sensors after 28 days of implantation.