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Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life.

Abstract

AIMS

Prenatal exposure to severe famine has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders. We studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to famine during the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45 and addiction later in life.

DESIGN

A case-control study.

SETTING

The Rotterdam city area during the Dutch hunger winter lasting from mid-October 1944 to mid-May 1945. From February 1945 to mid-May 1945 the hunger winter was characterized by a famine peak.

PARTICIPANTS

Patients are native Dutch addicted patients from the Rotterdam Addiction Treatment Program and controls are native Dutch inhabitants of Rotterdam, born between 1944 and 1947.

MEASUREMENT

Exposure to the whole hunger winter (< 1400 kcal/day) and the peak of the hunger winter (< 1000 kcal/day) was determined for each trimester of gestation. For each trimester the exposed/unexposed ratios were compared between patients and controls and quantified as odds ratios (OR).

FINDINGS

The odds of first-trimester gestational exposure to famine during the total hunger winter was significantly higher among patients receiving treatment for an addictive disorder [OR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.64]. Stratification by sex shows that the odds of exposure during the first trimester was significantly higher only among men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72), but not among women (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.88-1.81). The odds of exposure to the peak of the hunger winter during the first trimester of gestation were also significantly higher among addiction treatment patients (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). We did not find any significant differences for the second and third trimesters of gestation.

CONCLUSION

First-trimester prenatal exposure to famine appears to be associated with addiction later in life. The study confirms the adverse influence of severe malnutrition on brain development and maturation, confirms the influence of perinatal insults on mental health in later life and gives rise to great concern about the possible future consequences for the hunger regions in our world.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Bouman Mental Health Care Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ejf@arcor.de

    , , ,

    Source

    Addiction (Abingdon, England) 103:3 2008 Mar pg 433-8

    MeSH

    Case-Control Studies
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Netherlands
    Pregnancy
    Pregnancy Trimesters
    Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
    Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Seasons
    Sex Factors
    Starvation
    Substance-Related Disorders

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18190668

    Citation

    Franzek, Ernst J., et al. "Prenatal Exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger Winter' and Addiction Later in Life." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 103, no. 3, 2008, pp. 433-8.
    Franzek EJ, Sprangers N, Janssens AC, et al. Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life. Addiction. 2008;103(3):433-8.
    Franzek, E. J., Sprangers, N., Janssens, A. C., Van Duijn, C. M., & Van De Wetering, B. J. (2008). Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 103(3), pp. 433-8. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02084.x.
    Franzek EJ, et al. Prenatal Exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger Winter' and Addiction Later in Life. Addiction. 2008;103(3):433-8. PubMed PMID: 18190668.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life. AU - Franzek,Ernst J, AU - Sprangers,Niels, AU - Janssens,A Cecile J W, AU - Van Duijn,Cornelia M, AU - Van De Wetering,Ben J M, Y1 - 2008/01/08/ PY - 2008/1/15/pubmed PY - 2008/6/11/medline PY - 2008/1/15/entrez SP - 433 EP - 8 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 103 IS - 3 N2 - AIMS: Prenatal exposure to severe famine has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders. We studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to famine during the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45 and addiction later in life. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: The Rotterdam city area during the Dutch hunger winter lasting from mid-October 1944 to mid-May 1945. From February 1945 to mid-May 1945 the hunger winter was characterized by a famine peak. PARTICIPANTS: Patients are native Dutch addicted patients from the Rotterdam Addiction Treatment Program and controls are native Dutch inhabitants of Rotterdam, born between 1944 and 1947. MEASUREMENT: Exposure to the whole hunger winter (< 1400 kcal/day) and the peak of the hunger winter (< 1000 kcal/day) was determined for each trimester of gestation. For each trimester the exposed/unexposed ratios were compared between patients and controls and quantified as odds ratios (OR). FINDINGS: The odds of first-trimester gestational exposure to famine during the total hunger winter was significantly higher among patients receiving treatment for an addictive disorder [OR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.64]. Stratification by sex shows that the odds of exposure during the first trimester was significantly higher only among men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72), but not among women (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.88-1.81). The odds of exposure to the peak of the hunger winter during the first trimester of gestation were also significantly higher among addiction treatment patients (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). We did not find any significant differences for the second and third trimesters of gestation. CONCLUSION: First-trimester prenatal exposure to famine appears to be associated with addiction later in life. The study confirms the adverse influence of severe malnutrition on brain development and maturation, confirms the influence of perinatal insults on mental health in later life and gives rise to great concern about the possible future consequences for the hunger regions in our world. SN - 0965-2140 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18190668/Prenatal_exposure_to_the_1944_45_Dutch_'hunger_winter'_and_addiction_later_in_life_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02084.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -