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Role of circadian rhythm and endogenous melatonin in pathogenesis of acute gastric bleeding erosions induced by stress.

Abstract

Stress that appears as a consequence of burns, surgical trauma and life threatening conditions is a serious clinical entity, can result in acute gastric mucosal lesions. Such stress lesions can develop in response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and enhanced mucus/bicarbonate secretion. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin is released during the night but little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm and day/night alterations in melatonin secretion on the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. It was found that the gastric mucosa exposed to WRS of various time duration's lasting 1.5, 3 and 6 h, time-dependently increased the number of gastric lesions and this effect was accompanied by the time-dependent fall in the GBF and an increase in the plasma and luminal melatonin levels. Pinealectomy augmented WRS-induced lesions at each time intervals of WRS and produced a marked fall in the GBF and plasma and luminal melatonin levels at each time interval of WRS tested. WRS lesions were significantly reduced at night hours and showed circadian variations in plasma levels melatonin with significantly higher plasma melatonin levels at night than in the day and with a greater magnitude of damage induced in the daily hours than at night hours. WRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions were markedly enhanced in pinealectomized rats, both at day and night, and this was accompanied by a significant fall in plasma melatonin levels Stress that appears as a consequence of burns, surgical trauma and life threatening conditions is a serious clinical entity, can result in acute gastric mucosal lesions. Such stress lesions can develop in response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and enhanced mucus/bicarbonate secretion. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin is released during the night but little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm and day/night alterations in melatonin secretion on the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. It was found that the gastric mucosa exposed to WRS of various time duration's lasting 1.5, 3 and 6 h, time-dependently increased the number of gastric lesions and this effect was accompanied by the time-dependent fall in the GBF and an increase in the plasma and luminal melatonin levels. Pinealectomy augmented WRS-induced lesions at each time intervals of WRS and produced a marked fall in the GBF and plasma and luminal melatonin levels at each time interval of WRS tested. WRS lesions were significantly reduced at night hours and showed circadian variations in plasma levels melatonin with significantly higher plasma melatonin levels at night than in the day and with a greater magnitude of damage induced in the daily hours than at night hours. WRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions were markedly enhanced in pinealectomized rats, both at day and night, and this was accompanied by a significant fall in plasma melatonin levels with a pronounced reduction in mucosal generation of PGE(2) and GBF and by a small increase in plasma melatonin levels during the dark phase. We conclude that 1) stress-induced gastric bleeding erosions exhibit circadian rhythm with an increase in the day and attenuation at night and that these fluctuations in the formation of stress-induced gastric damage may depend upon the melatonin synthesis 2) the progressive increase in plasma melatonin in pinealectomized animals exposed to various time intervals of WRS suggests that extra-pineal melatonin possibly that derived from gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in the gastric mucosal defense against stress-induced gastric damage.

Authors+Show Affiliations

,

Department of Physiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 16 Grzegorzecka Street, Cracow, Poland. mpbrzozo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

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Source

MeSH

Acute Disease
Animals
Circadian Rhythm
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Gastric Mucosa
Male
Melatonin
Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage
Pineal Gland
Radioimmunoassay
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Restraint, Physical
Stomach Ulcer
Stress, Psychological

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18212400

Citation

Brzozowski, T, et al. "Role of Circadian Rhythm and Endogenous Melatonin in Pathogenesis of Acute Gastric Bleeding Erosions Induced By Stress." Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology : an Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, vol. 58 Suppl 6, 2007, pp. 53-64.
Brzozowski T, Zwirska-Korczala K, Konturek PC, et al. Role of circadian rhythm and endogenous melatonin in pathogenesis of acute gastric bleeding erosions induced by stress. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58 Suppl 6:53-64.
Brzozowski, T., Zwirska-Korczala, K., Konturek, P. C., Konturek, S. J., Sliwowski, Z., Pawlik, M., ... Pawlik, W. W. (2007). Role of circadian rhythm and endogenous melatonin in pathogenesis of acute gastric bleeding erosions induced by stress. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology : an Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, 58 Suppl 6, pp. 53-64.
Brzozowski T, et al. Role of Circadian Rhythm and Endogenous Melatonin in Pathogenesis of Acute Gastric Bleeding Erosions Induced By Stress. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58 Suppl 6:53-64. PubMed PMID: 18212400.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Role of circadian rhythm and endogenous melatonin in pathogenesis of acute gastric bleeding erosions induced by stress. AU - Brzozowski,T, AU - Zwirska-Korczala,K, AU - Konturek,P C, AU - Konturek,S J, AU - Sliwowski,Z, AU - Pawlik,M, AU - Kwiecien,S, AU - Drozdowicz,D, AU - Mazurkiewicz-Janik,M, AU - Bielanski,W, AU - Pawlik,W W, PY - 2007/09/12/received PY - 2007/11/14/accepted PY - 2008/3/28/pubmed PY - 2008/4/26/medline PY - 2008/3/28/entrez SP - 53 EP - 64 JF - Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society JO - J. Physiol. Pharmacol. VL - 58 Suppl 6 N2 - Stress that appears as a consequence of burns, surgical trauma and life threatening conditions is a serious clinical entity, can result in acute gastric mucosal lesions. Such stress lesions can develop in response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and enhanced mucus/bicarbonate secretion. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin is released during the night but little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm and day/night alterations in melatonin secretion on the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. It was found that the gastric mucosa exposed to WRS of various time duration's lasting 1.5, 3 and 6 h, time-dependently increased the number of gastric lesions and this effect was accompanied by the time-dependent fall in the GBF and an increase in the plasma and luminal melatonin levels. Pinealectomy augmented WRS-induced lesions at each time intervals of WRS and produced a marked fall in the GBF and plasma and luminal melatonin levels at each time interval of WRS tested. WRS lesions were significantly reduced at night hours and showed circadian variations in plasma levels melatonin with significantly higher plasma melatonin levels at night than in the day and with a greater magnitude of damage induced in the daily hours than at night hours. WRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions were markedly enhanced in pinealectomized rats, both at day and night, and this was accompanied by a significant fall in plasma melatonin levels Stress that appears as a consequence of burns, surgical trauma and life threatening conditions is a serious clinical entity, can result in acute gastric mucosal lesions. Such stress lesions can develop in response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and enhanced mucus/bicarbonate secretion. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin is released during the night but little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm and day/night alterations in melatonin secretion on the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. It was found that the gastric mucosa exposed to WRS of various time duration's lasting 1.5, 3 and 6 h, time-dependently increased the number of gastric lesions and this effect was accompanied by the time-dependent fall in the GBF and an increase in the plasma and luminal melatonin levels. Pinealectomy augmented WRS-induced lesions at each time intervals of WRS and produced a marked fall in the GBF and plasma and luminal melatonin levels at each time interval of WRS tested. WRS lesions were significantly reduced at night hours and showed circadian variations in plasma levels melatonin with significantly higher plasma melatonin levels at night than in the day and with a greater magnitude of damage induced in the daily hours than at night hours. WRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions were markedly enhanced in pinealectomized rats, both at day and night, and this was accompanied by a significant fall in plasma melatonin levels with a pronounced reduction in mucosal generation of PGE(2) and GBF and by a small increase in plasma melatonin levels during the dark phase. We conclude that 1) stress-induced gastric bleeding erosions exhibit circadian rhythm with an increase in the day and attenuation at night and that these fluctuations in the formation of stress-induced gastric damage may depend upon the melatonin synthesis 2) the progressive increase in plasma melatonin in pinealectomized animals exposed to various time intervals of WRS suggests that extra-pineal melatonin possibly that derived from gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in the gastric mucosal defense against stress-induced gastric damage. SN - 0867-5910 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18212400/Role_of_circadian_rhythm_and_endogenous_melatonin_in_pathogenesis_of_acute_gastric_bleeding_erosions_induced_by_stress_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/stress.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -