Polypyrimidine tract binding protein induces human papillomavirus type 16 late gene expression by interfering with splicing inhibitory elements at the major late 5' splice site, SD3632.J Virol. 2008 Apr; 82(7):3665-78.JV
We have initiated a screen for cellular factors that can induce human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) late gene expression in human cancer cells. We report that the overexpression of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), also known as heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein I (hnRNP I), induces HPV-16 late gene expression in cells transfected with subgenomic HPV-16 plasmids or with full-length HPV-16 genomes and in persistently HPV-16-infected cells. In contrast, other hnRNPs such as hnRNP B1/A2, hnRNP F, and hnRNP Q do not induce HPV-16 late gene expression. PTB activates SD3632, the only 5' splice site on the HPV-16 genome that is used exclusively by late mRNAs. PTB interferes with splicing inhibitory sequences located immediately upstream and downstream of SD3632, thereby activating late gene expression. One AU-rich PTB-responsive element was mapped to a 198-nucleotide sequence located downstream of SD3632. The deletion of this element induced HPV-16 late gene expression in the absence of PTB. Our results suggest that the overexpression of PTB interferes with cellular factors that interact with the inhibitory sequences. One may speculate that an increase in PTB levels or a reduction in the concentration of a PTB antagonist is required for the activation of HPV-16 late gene expression during the viral life cycle.