Cancers of the esophagus and carbonated beverage consumption: a population-based case-control study.Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Aug; 19(6):577-84.CC
Increased consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC); however, previous studies have not found supportive evidence. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study to measure the association between carbonated beverage intake and risk of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus.
A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect data on carbonated soft drink and beer consumption; a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle-related factors from 1,484 control subjects, 294 cases with EAC, 325 cases with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (EGJAC), and 238 cases with SCC of the esophagus. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders.
High intake of soft drinks was not associated with risk of EAC (fully adjusted OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.53-1.66, p for trend = 0.85) or EGJAC (fully adjusted OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67-1.73, p for trend = 0.89) but was inversely associated with SCC of the esophagus (fully adjusted model OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.78, p for trend = 0.04). High intake of beer was inversely associated with risk of EGJAC (fully adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.81) but positively associated with esophageal SCC (fully adjusted model OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.17-2.95).
High levels of consumption of carbonated soft drinks do not appear to increase the risk of either adenocarcinomas or SCC of the esophagus.