Nutrient intakes of toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study.J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Feb; 108(2):357-61.JA
There are only a few studies assessing the nutrient intake of Greek children in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the nutrient adequacy of the diets of a representative sample of 2,374 toddlers and preschoolers with full anthropometric and dietary intake data. Usual nutrient intakes were calculated after adjusting raw data for within-person variance and correcting for underreporting. The percentages of children meeting or not meeting recommendations for energy and nutrient intakes were estimated. Differences in mean values were tested with one-way analysis of variance, while chi(2) and Fisher exact tests were used to explore the association between categorical variables. For both fat and carbohydrate, a substantial percentage of toddlers and preschoolers had usual intakes outside the acceptable macronutrient distribution range, whereas protein was less than this range. "At risk of overweight" and "overweight" children consumed more total energy, protein, and fat compared with their normal-weight counterparts, whereas no differences were found for micronutrient intakes. The estimated prevalence of inadequacy was found to be between 10% and 25% for niacin, vitamin E, and folate. Usual intakes exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels were recorded for zinc and copper.