Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.J Hazard Mater. 2008 Aug 15; 156(1-3):387-97.JH
Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radical (O(2)(*-)) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.