Development of a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled to GC-qMSD for evaluation the chemical profile in alcoholic beverages.Anal Chim Acta. 2008 Feb 18; 609(1):82-104.AC
In the present study, a simple and sensitive methodology based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography with quadrupole mass detection (GC-qMSD), was developed and optimized for the determination of volatile (VOCs) and semi-volatile (SVOCs) compounds from different alcoholic beverages: wine, beer and whisky. Key experimental factors influencing the equilibrium of the VOCs and SVOCs between the sample and the SPME fibre, as the type of fibre coating, extraction time and temperature, sample stirring and ionic strength, were optimized. The performance of five commercially available SPME fibres was evaluated and compared, namely polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 microm); polyacrylate (PA, 85 microm); polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB, 65 microm); carboxentrade mark/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS, 75 microm) and the divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS, 50/30 microm) (StableFlex). An objective comparison among different alcoholic beverages has been established in terms of qualitative and semi-quantitative differences on volatile and semi-volatile compounds. These compounds belong to several chemical families, including higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters, carbonyl compounds, furanic compounds, terpenoids, C13-norisoprenoids and volatile phenols. The optimized extraction conditions and GC-qMSD, lead to the successful identification of 44 compounds in white wines, 64 in beers and 104 in whiskys. Some of these compounds were found in all of the examined beverage samples. The main components of the HS-SPME found in white wines were ethyl octanoate (46.9%), ethyl decanoate (30.3%), ethyl 9-decenoate (10.7%), ethyl hexanoate (3.1%), and isoamyl octanoate (2.7%). As for beers, the major compounds were isoamyl alcohol (11.5%), ethyl octanoate (9.1%), isoamyl acetate (8.2%), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (5.9%), and octanoic acid (5.5%). Ethyl decanoate (58.0%), ethyl octanoate (15.1%), ethyl dodecanoate (13.9%) followed by 3-methyl-1-butanol (1.8%) and isoamyl acetate (1.4%) were found to be the major VOCs in whisky samples.