Diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome: a comparative analysis in an unselected sample of adult male population.Metabolism. 2008 Mar; 57(3):355-61.M
This analysis compares the performance of 7 different diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome (MS) with regard to the prevalence of the syndrome, the characteristics of subjects with a positive diagnosis, and the ability to correctly identify individuals at high calculated cardiovascular (CV) risk or with signs of systemic inflammation or early organ damage. The diagnostic criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (1998); European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) (1999); Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) (2001); American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) (2003); ATP III (2004); International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2005); and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2005) were applied to the population of 933 men aged 59.5 years (range, 33-81 years) attending the 2002-2004 examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Standardized measurements were available for body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and microalbuminuria. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment index; and CV risk, by the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster algorithm. The MS prevalence ranged from 8.6% (AACE) to 44.5% (IDF). Among MS-positive subjects, insulin resistance ranged from 94.8% (EGIR) to 49.2% (IDF), whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus (excluded by EGIR and AACE criteria) rated 59.9% by World Health Organization and 22% to 24% by ATP III, IDF, or American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. By most criteria, MS-positive subjects had greater calculated CV risk than MS-negative subjects; but in general, the ability to correctly identify individuals at high CV risk was dampened by limited sensitivity (maximum 60%). Lowering the cutoff for abdominal adiposity (waist circumference <94 cm by IDF) did not improve the performance in this regard but identified a larger number of individuals with microalbuminuria (56%) and elevated C-reactive protein (53%).