Root cementum may modulate gene expression during periodontal regeneration: a preliminary study in humans.J Periodontol 2008; 79(2):323-31JP
Previous data demonstrated that root cementum may affect periodontal regeneration. As such, this study aimed to explore further possible mechanisms involved in this process by investigating in humans whether root cementum modulates gene expression in the regenerating tissue formed under membrane-protected intrabony defects.
Thirty subjects with deep intrabony defects (> or =5 mm; 2- or 3-wall) were selected and assigned to the control or test group. The control group received scaling and root planing with the removal of granulation tissue and root cementum; the test group underwent removal of granulation tissue and soft microbial deposits by cleaning the root surface with a microbrush and saline solution, aiming at cementum preservation. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) was applied to both groups. Twenty-one days later, the newly formed tissue under the membrane was assessed for the expression of the following genes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFA), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).
Data analysis demonstrated that mRNA levels for PDGFA, BSP, and bFGF were higher in the sites where root cementum was kept in place compared to the sites where root cementum was removed completely as part of the periodontal therapy (P <0.05); in contrast, OCN levels were lower (P <0.05). No difference for ALP or OPN was observed between the control and test groups (P >0.05).
Root cementum may modulate the expression of growth and mineral-associated factors during periodontal regeneration.