Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167(8):925-34AJ
This study examined dietary risk factors for incident benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in 4,770 Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1994-2003) placebo-arm participants who were free of BPH at baseline. BPH was assessed over 7 years and was defined as medical or surgical treatment or repeated elevation (>14) on the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire. Diet, alcohol, and supplement use were assessed by use of a food frequency questionnaire. There were 876 incident BPH cases (33.6/1,000 person-years). The hazard ratios for the contrasts of the highest to lowest quintiles increased 31% for total fat and 27% for polyunsaturated fat and decreased 15% for protein (all p(trend) < 0.05). The risk was significantly lower in high consumers of alcoholic beverages (0 vs. > or =2/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.67) and vegetables (<1 vs. > or =4/day: HR = 0.68) and higher in daily (vs. <1/week) consumers of red meat (HR = 1.38). There were no associations of supplemental antioxidants with risk, and there was weak evidence for associations of lycopene, zinc, and supplemental vitamin D with reduced risk. A diet low in fat and red meat and high in protein and vegetables, as well as regular alcohol consumption, may reduce the risk of symptomatic BPH.