DNA methyltransferase and alcohol dehydrogenase: gene-nutrient interactions in relation to risk of colorectal polyps.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Feb; 17(2):330-8.CE
Disturbances in DNA methylation are a characteristic of colorectal carcinogenesis. Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is essential for providing one-carbon groups for DNA methylation via DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Alcohol, a folate antagonist, could adversely affect one-carbon metabolism. In a case-control study of colorectal polyps, we evaluated three single nucleotide polymorphisms (-149C>T, -283T>C, -579G>T) in the promoter region of the DNMT3b gene, and a functional polymorphism in the coding region of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1C gene, ADH1C *2. Cases had a first diagnosis of colorectal adenomatous (n = 530) or hyperplastic (n = 202) polyps at the time of colonoscopy, whereas controls were polyp-free (n = 649). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant main associations between the DNMT3b or ADH1C polymorphisms and polyp risk. However, DNMT3b -149TT was associated with an increase in adenoma risk among individuals with low folate and methionine intake (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.06-3.78, P interaction = 0.10). The ADH1C *2/*2 genotype was associated with a possibly elevated risk for adenomatous polyps among individuals who consumed >26 g of alcohol/d (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.60-6.30), whereas individuals who were wild-type for ADH1C were not at increased risk of adenoma (P interaction = 0.01). These gene-diet interactions suggest that polymorphisms relevant to DNA methylation or alcohol metabolism may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in conjunction with a high-risk diet.