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Concurrent detection of heroin, fentanyl, and xylazine in seven drug-related deaths reported from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office.
J Forensic Sci. 2008 Mar; 53(2):495-8.JF

Abstract

Recreational drugs, such as cocaine and heroin, are often adulterated with other pharmacological agents to either enhance or diminish the drug effects. Between April 21, 2006 and August 8, 2006, the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office detected xylazine (a veterinary sedative) and fentanyl (a synthetic opioid) in specimens taken from seven cases. Initial immunoassay screening was performed on urine and blood for fentanyl, opiate, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and benzodiazepines. All tests reported positive were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All seven xylazine positive cases tested positive for fentanyl and six cases tested positive for 6-acetylmorphine (a metabolite and definitive marker for heroin). The seventh case was positive for morphine and had a history of heroin abuse. Xylazine was present in urine in all seven cases and blood levels were detected in three cases. The blood concentrations ranged from trace to 130 ng/mL. Fentanyl was present in the blood and urine in each case and blood concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 47 ng/mL. Adulteration of illicit drugs has become an epidemic health concern for drug users. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of this issue, so the patients can be treated in an effective, timely manner.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Emergency Medicine, Nazareth Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA. scw101@gmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18284526

Citation

Wong, Stella C., et al. "Concurrent Detection of Heroin, Fentanyl, and Xylazine in Seven Drug-related Deaths Reported From the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office." Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 53, no. 2, 2008, pp. 495-8.
Wong SC, Curtis JA, Wingert WE. Concurrent detection of heroin, fentanyl, and xylazine in seven drug-related deaths reported from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53(2):495-8.
Wong, S. C., Curtis, J. A., & Wingert, W. E. (2008). Concurrent detection of heroin, fentanyl, and xylazine in seven drug-related deaths reported from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53(2), 495-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00648.x
Wong SC, Curtis JA, Wingert WE. Concurrent Detection of Heroin, Fentanyl, and Xylazine in Seven Drug-related Deaths Reported From the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53(2):495-8. PubMed PMID: 18284526.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Concurrent detection of heroin, fentanyl, and xylazine in seven drug-related deaths reported from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office. AU - Wong,Stella C, AU - Curtis,John A, AU - Wingert,William E, Y1 - 2008/02/14/ PY - 2008/2/21/pubmed PY - 2008/6/18/medline PY - 2008/2/21/entrez SP - 495 EP - 8 JF - Journal of forensic sciences JO - J Forensic Sci VL - 53 IS - 2 N2 - Recreational drugs, such as cocaine and heroin, are often adulterated with other pharmacological agents to either enhance or diminish the drug effects. Between April 21, 2006 and August 8, 2006, the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office detected xylazine (a veterinary sedative) and fentanyl (a synthetic opioid) in specimens taken from seven cases. Initial immunoassay screening was performed on urine and blood for fentanyl, opiate, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and benzodiazepines. All tests reported positive were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All seven xylazine positive cases tested positive for fentanyl and six cases tested positive for 6-acetylmorphine (a metabolite and definitive marker for heroin). The seventh case was positive for morphine and had a history of heroin abuse. Xylazine was present in urine in all seven cases and blood levels were detected in three cases. The blood concentrations ranged from trace to 130 ng/mL. Fentanyl was present in the blood and urine in each case and blood concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 47 ng/mL. Adulteration of illicit drugs has become an epidemic health concern for drug users. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of this issue, so the patients can be treated in an effective, timely manner. SN - 0022-1198 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18284526/Concurrent_detection_of_heroin_fentanyl_and_xylazine_in_seven_drug_related_deaths_reported_from_the_Philadelphia_Medical_Examiner's_Office_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00648.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -