Functional role of lipoprotein receptors in Alzheimer's disease.Curr Alzheimer Res 2008; 5(1):15-25CA
The LDL receptor gene family constitutes a class of structurally closely related cell surface receptors fulfilling diverse functions in different organs, tissues, and cell types. The LDL receptor is the prototype of this family, which also includes the VLDLR, ApoER2/LRP8, LRP1 and LRP1B, as well as Megalin/GP330, SorLA/LR11, LRP5, LRP6 and MEGF7. Recently several lines of evidence have positioned the LDL receptor gene family as one of the key players in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Initially this receptor family was of high interest due to its key function in cholesterol/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) uptake, with the epsilon4 allele of ApoE as the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. It has been established that the cholesterol metabolism of the cell has a strong impact on the production of Abeta, the major component of the plaques found in the brain of AD-patients. The original report that soluble amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing the kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain might act as a ligand for LRP1 led to a complex investigation of the interaction of both proteins and their potential function in AD development. Meanwhile, it has been demonstrated that LRP1 might bind to APP independent of the KPI domain in APP. This APP - LRP1 interaction is facilitated through a trimeric complex of APP-FE65-LRP1, which has a functional role in APP processing. Along with LRP1, APP is transported from the early secretory compartments to the cell surface and subsequently internalised into the endosomal / lysosomal compartments. Recent investigations indicate that ApoER2 and SorLA fulfil a similar role in shifting APP localisation in the cell, which affects APP processing and the production of the APP derived amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). In addition to the effect of lipoprotein receptors on APP processing and Abeta production, LRP1 has been shown to bind Abeta directly or indirectly through Abeta-lactoferrin, Abeta-alpha2M and Abeta-ApoE complexes in vitro and in vivo. Based on these observations two LRP1 mediated clearance mechanisms of Abeta are proposed to play a crucial role in the prevention of AD: either Abeta-uptake into a cell with its subsequent degradation or its transport out of the brain over the blood brain barrier into the periphery. Following this export Abeta is degraded in the liver, where LRP1 potentially conducts the removal of Abeta from the blood stream. Although the involvement of LDLR family members in AD is not yet fully understood it becomes clear that they can directly affect APP production, Abeta-clearance and Abeta-transport over the blood brain barrier.