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The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008; 17 Suppl 1:131-4.AP

Abstract

A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Increased dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) leads to oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), platelet aggregation, and interferes with the incorporation of essential fatty acids (EFA) in cell membrane phopholipids. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Omega-3 fatty acids have strong anti-inflammatory effects, suppress interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas omega-6 fatty acids tend to be pro-inflammatory. Because inflammation is at the base of many chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids plays an important role in the manifestation of disease, particularly in persons with genetic variation, as for example in individuals with genetic variants at the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). Increased dietary arachidonic acid (AA) significantly enhances the apparent atherogenic effect of genotype, whereas increased dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) blunts this effect. The diet-gene interaction further suggests that dietary omega-6 fatty acids promote, whereas marine omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA inhibit leukotriene-mediated inflammation that leads to atherosclerosis in this subpopulation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, 2001 S Street, NW, Suite 530, Washington, DC 20009 USA. cgnh@bellatlantic.net

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18296320

Citation

Simopoulos, Artemis P.. "The Omega-6/omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio, Genetic Variation, and Cardiovascular Disease." Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 17 Suppl 1, 2008, pp. 131-4.
Simopoulos AP. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:131-4.
Simopoulos, A. P. (2008). The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17 Suppl 1, 131-4.
Simopoulos AP. The Omega-6/omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio, Genetic Variation, and Cardiovascular Disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:131-4. PubMed PMID: 18296320.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease. A1 - Simopoulos,Artemis P, PY - 2008/5/28/pubmed PY - 2008/7/3/medline PY - 2008/5/28/entrez SP - 131 EP - 4 JF - Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition JO - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr VL - 17 Suppl 1 N2 - A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Increased dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) leads to oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), platelet aggregation, and interferes with the incorporation of essential fatty acids (EFA) in cell membrane phopholipids. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Omega-3 fatty acids have strong anti-inflammatory effects, suppress interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas omega-6 fatty acids tend to be pro-inflammatory. Because inflammation is at the base of many chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids plays an important role in the manifestation of disease, particularly in persons with genetic variation, as for example in individuals with genetic variants at the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). Increased dietary arachidonic acid (AA) significantly enhances the apparent atherogenic effect of genotype, whereas increased dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) blunts this effect. The diet-gene interaction further suggests that dietary omega-6 fatty acids promote, whereas marine omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA inhibit leukotriene-mediated inflammation that leads to atherosclerosis in this subpopulation. SN - 0964-7058 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18296320/The_omega_6/omega_3_fatty_acid_ratio_genetic_variation_and_cardiovascular_disease_ L2 - http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/17 Suppl 1//131.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -