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Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention.
J Med Virol. 2008 Apr; 80(4):646-58.JM

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the sole member of the genus Hepevirus in the family of Hepeviridae, is the major cause of several outbreaks of waterborne hepatitis in tropical and subtropical countries and of sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in endemic and industrialized countries. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route although parenteral and perinatal routes have been implicated. The overall death rate among young adults and pregnant women is 0.5-3% and 15-20%, respectively. HEV is a small non-enveloped particle that consists of a polyadenylated single-strand RNA molecule containing three discontinuous and partially overlapping open reading frames. There are four major genotypes of HEV and a single serotype. At present, there are approximately 1,600 sequences of HEV that are already available at INSDC of both human and animal isolates. Diagnostic and molecular assays have been described for the accurate differentiation of ongoing from remote infection of HEV. Identification and characterization of swine HEV in the United States, Japan, and many other countries and their close relationship to locally characterized human HEV found in the same geographic areas prove that HEV is indeed a zoonotic virus and that domestic swine, wild deer, and boars are reservoirs of HEV in nature. A cell culture system for the propagation of the virus has been described, and a very successful phase 2 vaccine trial has been completed. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular biology, clinical features, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, and prevention of HEV.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Infectious Disease Diagnostics, Tierra Verde, Florida 33715, USA. ikm@akamaventures.com

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18297720

Citation

Mushahwar, Isa K.. "Hepatitis E Virus: Molecular Virology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Transmission, Epidemiology, and Prevention." Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 80, no. 4, 2008, pp. 646-58.
Mushahwar IK. Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention. J Med Virol. 2008;80(4):646-58.
Mushahwar, I. K. (2008). Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention. Journal of Medical Virology, 80(4), 646-58. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21116
Mushahwar IK. Hepatitis E Virus: Molecular Virology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Transmission, Epidemiology, and Prevention. J Med Virol. 2008;80(4):646-58. PubMed PMID: 18297720.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention. A1 - Mushahwar,Isa K, PY - 2008/2/26/pubmed PY - 2008/4/16/medline PY - 2008/2/26/entrez SP - 646 EP - 58 JF - Journal of medical virology JO - J Med Virol VL - 80 IS - 4 N2 - Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the sole member of the genus Hepevirus in the family of Hepeviridae, is the major cause of several outbreaks of waterborne hepatitis in tropical and subtropical countries and of sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in endemic and industrialized countries. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route although parenteral and perinatal routes have been implicated. The overall death rate among young adults and pregnant women is 0.5-3% and 15-20%, respectively. HEV is a small non-enveloped particle that consists of a polyadenylated single-strand RNA molecule containing three discontinuous and partially overlapping open reading frames. There are four major genotypes of HEV and a single serotype. At present, there are approximately 1,600 sequences of HEV that are already available at INSDC of both human and animal isolates. Diagnostic and molecular assays have been described for the accurate differentiation of ongoing from remote infection of HEV. Identification and characterization of swine HEV in the United States, Japan, and many other countries and their close relationship to locally characterized human HEV found in the same geographic areas prove that HEV is indeed a zoonotic virus and that domestic swine, wild deer, and boars are reservoirs of HEV in nature. A cell culture system for the propagation of the virus has been described, and a very successful phase 2 vaccine trial has been completed. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular biology, clinical features, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, and prevention of HEV. SN - 0146-6615 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18297720/Hepatitis_E_virus:_molecular_virology_clinical_features_diagnosis_transmission_epidemiology_and_prevention_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21116 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -