Molecular characterization and genomic organization of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes at the Glu-3 loci in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Theor Appl Genet 2008; 116(7):953-66TA
In this study, we report on the molecular characterization and genomic organization of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) gene family in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eighty-two positive BAC clones were identified to contain LMW-GS genes from the hexaploid wheat 'Glenlea' BAC library via filter hybridization and PCR validation. Twelve unique LMW glutenin genes and seven pseudogenes were isolated from these positive BAC clones by primer-template mismatch PCR and subsequent primer walking using hemi-nested touchdown PCR. These genes were sequenced and each consisted of a single-open reading frame (ORF) and untranslated 5' and 3' flanking regions. All 12 LMW glutenin subunits contained eight cysteine residues. The LMW-m-type subunits are the most abundant in hexaploid wheat. Of the 12 LMW-GS, 1, 2 and 9 are i-type, s-type and m-type, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the LMW-i type gene showed greater differences to LMW-s and LMW-m-type genes, which, in turn, were more closely related to one another. On the basis of their N-terminal sequences, they were classified into nine groups. Fingerprinting of the 82 BAC clones indicated 30 BAC clones assembled into eight contigs, while the remaining clones were singletons. BAC end sequencing of the 82 clones revealed that long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were abundant in the Glu-3 regions. The average physical distance between two adjacent LMW-GS genes was estimated to be 81 kb. Most of LMW-GS genes are located in the D: -genome, suggesting that the Glu-D3 locus is much larger than the Glu-B3 locus and Glu-A3 locus. Alignments of sequences indicated that the same type (starting with the same N-terminal sequence) LMW-GS genes were highly conserved in the homologous genomes between hexaploid wheat and its donors such as durum wheat and T. tauschii.