[Potassium magnesium homeostasis: physiology, pathophysiology, clinical consequences of deficiency and pharmacological correction].Usp Fiziol Nauk 2008 Jan-Mar; 39(1):23-41UF
The metabolism of K and Mg is closely linked. Mg deficiency may arise together with and contribute to the persistence of K deficiency. Isolated disturbances of K balance do not produce secondary abnormalities in Mg homeostasis. In contrast, primary disturbances in Mg balance, particularly Mg depletion, produce secondary K depletion. This appears to result from an inability of the cell to maintain the normally high intracellular concentration of K, perhaps as a result of an increase in membrane permeability to K and / or inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. Cases of Mg deficiency accompanying with Mg-dependent or -independent K deficiency are not uncommon among the general population. K and Mg deficiencies are found in patients with chronic alcoholism, cardiac diseases, diabetes mellitus (type II), genetic forms of renal potassium and magnesium wasting (Gitelman's and Bartter's syndromes), severe diarrhea and vomiting, malnutrition, during therapy with some kind of drugs. Various K-Mg salts allowing simultaneously eliminating deficiency of Mg and K are described in the literature. K-Mg aspartate is most distributed among K-Mg salts. It can be used as adjuvant therapy in ischaemic heart disease (in angina pectoris and conditions after myocardial infarction), prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of cardiac arrhythmia (e.g. prevention of toxic symptoms during therapy with digoxin). Differences in metabolism and utilisation of D- and L-amino acids probably may effect on pharmacological properties of K-Mg L- and D-aspartates, and what is more pharmacological doses of Mg and K salts may induce toxicity which differs according to the nature of the anions. In our research it was established, that L-aspartate salts are better delivery forms for cations such as Mg and K than D-aspartate salts. K-Mg L-aspartate can be more beneficial in the treatment of several forms of primary Mg and K deficiency than K-Mg DL-aspartate and K-Mg D-aspartate.