Nefopam and ketoprofen synergy in rodent models of antinociception.Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 28; 584(2-3):263-71.EJ
Combinations of analgesics with different mechanisms of action offer the possibility of efficient analgesia with a decrease in side effects as a result of reduced dosages of one or both compounds. Based on a clinical observation of synergism between nefopam, a centrally acting non-opioid that inhibits monoamines reuptake, and ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, the objective of this study was to further explore this antinociceptive synergy in four distinct animal models of pain (both drugs were administered subcutaneously). Strong antinociceptive properties were observed in the mouse writhing abdominal test with ED50 values of 2.56+/-0.38 and 1.41+/-0.41 mg/kg for nefopam and ketoprofen, respectively. In the inflammatory phase of the mouse formalin test, both compounds significantly inhibited the licking time of the injected hind-paw with ED50 of 4.32+/-0.17 mg/kg for nefopam and 49.56+/-15.81 mg/kg for ketoprofen. Isobolographic analysis revealed that this drug combination is synergistic in the formalin test and additive in the writhing test. In rat carrageenan-induced tactile allodynia, single administration of nefopam or ketoprofen only partially reduced allodynia. Combination of low analgesic doses of nefopam (10 or 30 mg/kg) with low analgesic doses of ketoprofen (30 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced or reversed allodynia, with a more pronounced anti-allodynic effect and a longer duration efficacy. In a rat model of postoperative thermal hyperalgesia induced by incision, co-administration of nefopam at a low analgesic dose (10 mg/kg) with ketoprofen at non-analgesic doses (30 or 100 mg/kg) showed the appearance of a strong anti-hyperalgesic effect, maintained during at least 3 h. In conclusion, co-administration of nefopam with ketoprofen is synergistic, and should allow either to increase their analgesic efficacy and/or to reduce their side effects.