Nickel-catalyzed cycloadditions of unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and ketones.J Org Chem. 2008 Apr 04; 73(7):2641-8.JO
The nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of unsaturated hydrocarbons and carbonyls is reported. Diynes and enynes were used as coupling partners. Carbonyl substrates include both aldehdyes and ketones. Reactions of diynes and aldehydes afforded the [3,3] electrocyclic ring-opened tautomers, rather than pyrans, in high yields. The cycloaddition reaction of enynes and aldehydes afforded two distinct products. A new carbon-carbon bond is formed, prior to a competitive beta-hydrogen elimination of a nickel alkoxide, between the carbonyl carbon and either one of the carbons of the olefin or the alkyne. The steric hindrance of the enyne greatly affected the chemoselectivity of the cycloaddition of enynes and aldehydes. In some cases, dihydropyran was also formed. The scope of the cycloaddition reaction was expanded to include the coupling of enynes and ketones. No beta-hydrogen elimination was observed in cycloaddition reaction of enynes and ketones. Instead, C-O bond-forming reductive elimination occurred exclusively to afford dihydropyrans in excellent yields. In all cases, complete chemoselectivity was observed; only dihydropyrans where the carbonyl carbon forms a carbon-carbon bond with a carbon of the olefin, rather than of the alkyne, were observed. All cycloaddition reactions occur at room temperature and employ nickel catalysts bearing the hindered 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) or its saturated analogue, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIPr).