[Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of anemia].Nihon Rinsho 2008; 66(3):423-8NR
Anemia can result from deficient erythropoiesis [aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease (ACD), thalassemia, megaloblastic anemia, chronic renal failure, hematological malignancies, etc.], excessive RBC destruction [hereditary spherocytosis, inherited enzyme deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), etc.], and blood loss. Based on the measured red cell size(MCV), anemia is classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic. Iron parameters (serum iron, serum ferritin, etc.), reticulocyte count, bone marrow examination, Coombs test, serum vitamin B12 level, and Ham test are also useful in the differential diagnosis of anemia. Novel treatment of anemia includes lenalidomide for 5q(-)MDS, azacitidine for high-risk MDS, and eculizumab for PNH. Oral iron chelator(deferasirox) developed for the treatment of transfusional iron overload is also very useful for the management of patients with bone marrow failure syndromes.