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Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar; 87(3):645-54.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Frequent hyperglycemic episodes are increasingly being associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

OBJECTIVE

We studied the extent to which acute glycemia and glycemia after subsequent meals can be modulated by the characteristics of cereal foods, such as glycemic index (GI) and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

DESIGN

Twelve healthy subjects consumed test meals in a random order. In series 1, the test meals were consumed at breakfast, and postprandial blood glucose incremental areas under the curve (IAUCs) were calculated after the test breakfast, standardized lunch, and standardized dinner. In series 2, the subjects consumed test evening meals and IAUCs were calculated after a subsequent standardized breakfast. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation.

RESULTS

Barley or rye kernel breakfasts lowered the blood glucose IAUC (0-120 min) at breakfast, at a subsequent lunch, and the cumulative IAUCs (breakfast+lunch+dinner) when compared with white-wheat bread (P < 0.05). The lunch blood glucose IAUCs were positively correlated with breakfast IAUCs (r = 0.30, P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen excretion was negatively correlated with blood glucose IAUCs after lunch (r = -0.33, P < 0.05) and dinner (r = -0.22, P < 0.05). A barley kernel evening meal resulted in lower IAUCs (P < 0.05) and higher breath hydrogen (P < 0.001) after a subsequent breakfast compared with white-wheat bread.

CONCLUSIONS

Glucose tolerance at subsequent meals can be notably improved during the course of a whole day or overnight by choosing specific low-GI, whole-grain cereal products. A low GI may be sufficient to achieve a second-meal effect from breakfast to lunch. A specific indigestible carbohydrate mixture appears to be required to show benefits on glucose tolerance in a longer time frame (9.5 h), most likely mediated through colonic fermentation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden. anne.nilsson@inl.lth.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18326603

Citation

Nilsson, Anne C., et al. "Effect of Cereal Test Breakfasts Differing in Glycemic Index and Content of Indigestible Carbohydrates On Daylong Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Subjects." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 3, 2008, pp. 645-54.
Nilsson AC, Ostman EM, Granfeldt Y, et al. Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):645-54.
Nilsson, A. C., Ostman, E. M., Granfeldt, Y., & Björck, I. M. (2008). Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(3), 645-54.
Nilsson AC, et al. Effect of Cereal Test Breakfasts Differing in Glycemic Index and Content of Indigestible Carbohydrates On Daylong Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):645-54. PubMed PMID: 18326603.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. AU - Nilsson,Anne C, AU - Ostman,Elin M, AU - Granfeldt,Yvonne, AU - Björck,Inger M E, PY - 2008/3/11/pubmed PY - 2008/4/16/medline PY - 2008/3/11/entrez SP - 645 EP - 54 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 87 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Frequent hyperglycemic episodes are increasingly being associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We studied the extent to which acute glycemia and glycemia after subsequent meals can be modulated by the characteristics of cereal foods, such as glycemic index (GI) and content of indigestible carbohydrates. DESIGN: Twelve healthy subjects consumed test meals in a random order. In series 1, the test meals were consumed at breakfast, and postprandial blood glucose incremental areas under the curve (IAUCs) were calculated after the test breakfast, standardized lunch, and standardized dinner. In series 2, the subjects consumed test evening meals and IAUCs were calculated after a subsequent standardized breakfast. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. RESULTS: Barley or rye kernel breakfasts lowered the blood glucose IAUC (0-120 min) at breakfast, at a subsequent lunch, and the cumulative IAUCs (breakfast+lunch+dinner) when compared with white-wheat bread (P < 0.05). The lunch blood glucose IAUCs were positively correlated with breakfast IAUCs (r = 0.30, P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen excretion was negatively correlated with blood glucose IAUCs after lunch (r = -0.33, P < 0.05) and dinner (r = -0.22, P < 0.05). A barley kernel evening meal resulted in lower IAUCs (P < 0.05) and higher breath hydrogen (P < 0.001) after a subsequent breakfast compared with white-wheat bread. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance at subsequent meals can be notably improved during the course of a whole day or overnight by choosing specific low-GI, whole-grain cereal products. A low GI may be sufficient to achieve a second-meal effect from breakfast to lunch. A specific indigestible carbohydrate mixture appears to be required to show benefits on glucose tolerance in a longer time frame (9.5 h), most likely mediated through colonic fermentation. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18326603/Effect_of_cereal_test_breakfasts_differing_in_glycemic_index_and_content_of_indigestible_carbohydrates_on_daylong_glucose_tolerance_in_healthy_subjects_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -