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Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population.
Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87(3):655-61AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and with metabolic risk factors including blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP).

DESIGN

The study entailed cross-sectional analyses of data from 2 joint observational studies, the CoDAM Study and the Hoorn Study.

RESULTS

In total, 974 subjects aged 42-87 y were included in the study. The mean (+/-SD) GI was 57 +/- 4 and the mean GL was 130 +/- 39. Dairy products, potatoes and other tubers, cereal products, and fruit were the main predictive food groups for GI. GL was closely correlated with intake of total carbohydrates (r(s) = 0.97), which explained >95% of the variation in GL. After adjustment for potential confounders, GI was significantly inversely associated with HDL cholesterol and positively associated with fasting insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and CRP. No association was observed between GL and any of the metabolic risk factors, except for a borderline significant positive association with CRP.

CONCLUSIONS

In this population, a low-GI diet, which is high in dairy and fruit but low in potatoes and cereals, is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism and reduced chronic inflammation. GL is highly correlated with carbohydrate intake and is not clearly associated with the investigated metabolic risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands. huaidong.du@rivm.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18326604

Citation

Du, Huaidong, et al. "Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load in Relation to Food and Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Risk Factors in a Dutch Population." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 3, 2008, pp. 655-61.
Du H, van der A DL, van Bakel MM, et al. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):655-61.
Du, H., van der A, D. L., van Bakel, M. M., van der Kallen, C. J., Blaak, E. E., van Greevenbroek, M. M., ... Feskens, E. J. (2008). Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(3), pp. 655-61.
Du H, et al. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load in Relation to Food and Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Risk Factors in a Dutch Population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):655-61. PubMed PMID: 18326604.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. AU - Du,Huaidong, AU - van der A,Daphne L, AU - van Bakel,Marit M E, AU - van der Kallen,Carla J H, AU - Blaak,Ellen E, AU - van Greevenbroek,Marleen M J, AU - Jansen,Eugène H J M, AU - Nijpels,Giel, AU - Stehouwer,Coen D A, AU - Dekker,Jacqueline M, AU - Feskens,Edith J M, PY - 2008/3/11/pubmed PY - 2008/4/16/medline PY - 2008/3/11/entrez SP - 655 EP - 61 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 87 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and with metabolic risk factors including blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). DESIGN: The study entailed cross-sectional analyses of data from 2 joint observational studies, the CoDAM Study and the Hoorn Study. RESULTS: In total, 974 subjects aged 42-87 y were included in the study. The mean (+/-SD) GI was 57 +/- 4 and the mean GL was 130 +/- 39. Dairy products, potatoes and other tubers, cereal products, and fruit were the main predictive food groups for GI. GL was closely correlated with intake of total carbohydrates (r(s) = 0.97), which explained >95% of the variation in GL. After adjustment for potential confounders, GI was significantly inversely associated with HDL cholesterol and positively associated with fasting insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and CRP. No association was observed between GL and any of the metabolic risk factors, except for a borderline significant positive association with CRP. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, a low-GI diet, which is high in dairy and fruit but low in potatoes and cereals, is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism and reduced chronic inflammation. GL is highly correlated with carbohydrate intake and is not clearly associated with the investigated metabolic risk factors. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18326604/Glycemic_index_and_glycemic_load_in_relation_to_food_and_nutrient_intake_and_metabolic_risk_factors_in_a_Dutch_population_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/87.3.655 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -