Self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes living in France: the Entred study 2001.Diabetes Metab. 2008 Jun; 34(3):219-26.DM
To describe the practice of self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) testing and to determine factors linked to SMBG in people with diabetes living in France.
The 2001 Entred study, a French national survey of people being treated for diabetes, is based on a representative sample of 10,000 adults who claimed reimbursement for oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or insulin in October to December 2001 and who were randomly extracted from the database of the major National Health Insurance System. A questionnaire was mailed to all these people and was returned by 36% of them, who were then classified into three groups: type 1 diabetes (T1D, N=235); type 2 diabetes treated with insulin (iT2D, N=635); and type 2 diabetes treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents (oT2D, N=2689). Factors associated with SMBG were analyzed using logistic regression models with a step-by-step forward approach.
HbA(1c) was greater than or equal to 8% in 42% of people with T1D, 48% of those with iT2D and 21% of those with oTD2. Almost all of those treated with insulin performed SMBG. The frequency of self-monitoring was higher in T1D than in iT2D. In T1D, 58% of people reported they took at least three tests a day, as recommended in guidelines, which was more frequent in those who knew what HbA(1c) meant and in women. In iT2D, 74% reported that they took at least two tests a day, as recommended, and it was more frequent in those who knew what HbA(1c) meant, who reported at least one severe hypoglycaemic episode in 2001 and who received dietary advice from their practitioner. In oT2D, 38% reported using SMBG (six tests a week on average), even though no official recommendation had been provided for these patients. SMBG was also more frequent in patients being treated with multiple oral hypoglycaemic agents, in those who benefited from a waiver of co-payment due to a chronic disease and in those, who had visited a diabetes specialist in 2001, reported they knew what HbA(1c) meant, received dietary advice and reported at least one severe hypoglycaemic episode in 2001 and/or a history of diabetes complications.
In France, as per the official recommendations, almost all people on insulin treatment use a SMBG device while, overall, their glucose control remains poor. More than one-third of those with oT2D regularly perform SMBG. In only 3% of people, the regular use of SMBG does not appear to be related to any special needs or events (such as insulin treatment, occurrence of severe hypoglycaemia or chronic complications).